Referatai, kursiniai, diplominiai

   Rasti 1079 rezultatai

Black footed ferret
2012-12-12
It's a peresentacion about black footed ferret. Lots of pictures.
Lietuvių kalba  Pristatymas   (15 psl., 1,44 MB)
Some people claim that the biggest influence to global warming are doing the richest industrialised countries, and pour countries , can’t make any changes. However others maintain that all, even the poorest nations are responsible for disaster which is called- global warming.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 6,32 kB)
Papročius išsaugoti ne tik verta, o ir privaloma. Nes šiais liberalizmo laikais mes vis daugiau žiurime į vakarus. Pamirštam, kad esame Lietuviai.
Lietuvių kalba  Namų darbai   (1 psl., 6,47 kB)
Linking verbs
2011-04-28
Content: Introduction...............................................2 Linking Verbs May be used as Linking Verbs............................................3 Linking or Action................................................3 Neither Active nor Passive ................................................5 When we use Linking verbs?......................6 Linking, transitive or intransitive…………………………………………7 Non-copular uses………………………………………………………….7 Conjugation……………………………………………………………….8 Conclusion ............................................9 List of referente.........................................................................................
Filologija  Referatai   (10 psl., 21,26 kB)
Išsamus pristatymas apie Šilutės miestą anglų kalba.
Anglų kalba  Projektai   (25 psl., 2,29 MB)
English-speaking country. Travel. Cycling. Attractions of Lithuania.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 8,48 kB)
Ecological problems
2011-04-14
Ecological problems: air pollution, water pollution,littering, the green house effect
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 7,9 kB)
the best profession to choose
Lietuvių kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 6,14 kB)
Climate Change
2011-04-12
Climate Change Nowadays there are many discussions about whether the climate on Earth is really changing and whether people‘s activities is the main cause of these changes.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 6,42 kB)
anglu pasakojimas
Etika  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 7,73 kB)
Fresin Fries is a locally owned fast food outlet that will be positioned as an international franchise through our creative approach to the company's image and detail presentation. Fresin Fries will provide a combination of excellent food at value pricing, with fun packaging and atmosphere. Fresin Fries is the answer to an increasing demand for snack-type fast food, to be consumed while window shopping and walking around inside a shopping mall.
Administravimas  Dokumentai   (51 psl., 178,17 kB)
Global problems
2011-03-30
Rašinys anglų kalba apie global problems
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 6,45 kB)
Museums
2011-03-27
apie muziejus ju nauda.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 7,49 kB)
Apie Kinijos svarbą ir vaidmenį visame pasaulyje.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 9,5 kB)
greek temple styles
2011-03-12
In this work I am going to present the architecture of Greek temple, elements, different styles and mention the most popular greek temples.
Architektūra ir dizainas  Referatai   (11 psl., 129,68 kB)
Brief description of economic situation in Lithuania
Administravimas  Referatai   (8 psl., 21,47 kB)
puikus rašinys anglų kalba apie aplinką ir ką padaryti,jog ją išsaugotume.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 7,4 kB)
Pagrindindiniai šio amžiaus labiausiai paplitę muzikos stiliai ir jų šakos, kas jiems būdinga ir pagrindinės savybės.
Muzika  Referatai   (34 psl., 64,04 kB)
Economy
2010-12-01
Introduction. How are consumer preferences used to determine demand? How do consumers allocate income to the purchase of different goods? How do consumers with limited income decide what to buy?
Ekonomika  Konspektai   (7 psl., 14,22 kB)
Baigiamojo darbo objektas - turizmo paslaugų kokybė UAB „Kelvita“. Šio darbo tikslas - remiantis įgytomis teorinėmis žiniomis, išanalizuoti ir įvertinti UAB “Kelvita” turizmo paslaugų kokybę ir nužymėti jos tobulinimo kelius. Pagrindiniai darbo uždaviniai: pateikti atvykstamojo turizmo apžvalgą šalyje ir Vilniaus regione; išanalizuoti turizmo paslaugų kokybės teorinius aspektus; įvertinti esamą turizmo paslaugų būklę turizmo agentūroje „Kelvita“; nužymėti turizmo paslaugų kokybės tobulinimo galimybes UAB „Kelvita”.
Administravimas  Diplominiai darbai   (46 psl., 100,45 kB)
Darbas ekonomikoje – esminis gerovės šaltinis ir konkurencingumo prielaida. Susiformavus darbo rinkai, atsirado ir nedarbas, kuris suprantamas kaip darbo pasiūlos ir paklausos disbalansas, tai – pagrindinė įvairių šalių darbo rinkos problema, kuri šiuo metu aktuali ir Lietuvoje. Su nedarbo problema Lietuva susiduria nuo nepriklausomybės atkūrimo. Pirmosios nedarbo priežastys tuo laikotarpiu buvo intensyviai vykdomos reformos, planinio ūkio transformacija į rinkos ūkį bei užsilikę sovietiniai reliktai. Vienas iš pagrindinių ekonomikos teiginių yra tas, kad bet kokie ekonominio mechanizmo pokyčiai tiesiogiai ar netiesiogiai sukelia užimtumo pokyčius. Naujumas, aktualumas. Šiuo metu dažnai pasaulyje minima problema yra nedarbas. Jis sukelia ne tik ekonominius, bet ir įvairius socialinius neigiamus padarinius. Masinis darbuotojų atleidimas, gyvenimo lygio smukimas, artėjimas prie skurdo ribos, žmonių dvejonės dėl laukiančio rytojaus, nedarbo nulemtų kitų makroekonominių rodiklių blogėjimas – visa tai linksniuojama kiekvieną dieną. Visi supranta šio reiškinio didėjančią grėsmę ir stengiasi ieškoti būdų, kaip užkirsti tam kelią. Šiame darbe bus nagrinėjama situacija Lietuvos darbo rinkoje nuo nepriklausomybės atkūrimo iki šių dienų, bandysime išsiaiškinti, kaip buvo kovojama su nedarbu bei jo sukeltomis pasekmėmis, kas yra daroma dabar ir kokių teigiamų bei neigiamų perspektyvų galima tikėtis.
Ekonomika  Kursiniai darbai   (71 psl., 898,7 kB)
Dangoraižiai
2010-11-17
Šiame referate aš apžvelgsiu kada ir dėl kokių priežasčių atsirado pirmieji dangoraižiai skirtinguose pasaulio vietose, bei trumpai aprašysiu kaip juose vystėsi dangoraižių statybos iki mūsų dienų. Taip pat trumpai paminėsiu pirmuosius ir pačius aukščiausius dangoraižius. Referate aprašyti pasirinkau jau seniai pripažintus „dangoraižių miestus“ – Niujorką, Čikagą, Hong Kongą, Tokio, San Paulą, bei tik neseniai išgarsėjusiuos – Šanchajų, Dubai, Maskvą.
Architektūra ir dizainas  Referatai   (10 psl., 4,41 MB)
Temos aktualumas. Rinkimai – svarbiausia piliečių dalyvavimo valstybės valdyme forma, tautos politinės valios išraiška. Rinkimai vaidina svarbų vaidmenį šalies politiniame gyvenime. Jie užtikrina faktinį piliečių dalyvavimą sprendžiant valstybės ir visuomenės reikalus. Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucijos 4 straipsnyje nustatyta, kad „Aukščiausią suverenią galią Tauta vykdo tiesiogiai ar per demokratiškai išrinktus savo atstovus” . Taigi, rinkimų paskirtis yra demokratijos įgyvendinimas, tautos atstovų išrinkimas ir valstybės valdžios institucijų suformavimas.
Teisė  Kursiniai darbai   (27 psl., 34,08 kB)
Labour relations
2010-09-22
In this paper we will analyze regulation of labour relations, speak about management problems in the companies looking from the law side. Besides analyze labor rights, their disputes, individual labour disputes and the labour disputes considered in courts.
Teisė  Referatai   (16 psl., 26,11 kB)
Šiame straipsnyje siekiama išskirti veiksnius, kurie svarbūs valdymui pokyčių kontekste. Šiuolaikiniame pasaulyje akivaizdus valstybių ir visuomenių suartėjimas. Kalbant apie pokyčius, neišvengiamai kyla klausimų apie mūsų ateitį. Teisingas pokyčių ir jų padarinių numatymas dar šiandien leistų organizacijų vadovams keisti strategijas ir pasirengti rytdienai. Tai garantuotų konkurencinį pranašumą ir sėkmingą organizacijų veiklą. Pagrindinių kaitos poveikio sričių nustatymas yra viena svarbiausių šiandienos vadybos mokslo problemų.
Ekonomika  Tyrimai   (7 psl., 31,14 kB)
63 anglų topikai
2010-05-31
BALANCED DIET, CINEMA, CRIME, ENVIRONMENT, EUROPEAN UNION & NATO, FOREIGN LANGUAGES, HISTORY OF CHRISTMAS, JUNK FOOD, LITHUANIA IN 50 YEARS’ TIME, MASS MEDIA, PROFILE EDUCATION, SMOKING & DRUGS, SPORT,TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, TRANSPORT....
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (42 psl., 53,24 kB)
Dear Sir or Madam, Although I had never left my native country and saw other places, I have always been interested in other cultures, the way people are thinking and what they are doing to make the world better place to live. Since my early age, this interest spread in all over my mind, so after many researches and thinking I found out that Bachelor's Degree in International Management program in Aarhus University - Institute of Business and Technology of Denmark would be the best choice for my further studies. This program will give me valuable knowledge on how to deal with issues among others like globalization, international marketing and global supply chain management. Also I have some arguments that I would be a relevant candidate for Aarhus University.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 4,48 kB)
My dream house
2010-05-12
To begin with, I must say that for the meantime I live in a five storied building with other buildings around it. My flat is on the fourth floor. The flat has all modern conveniences, but is not very large. As I know many people usually dream about the castle on the bank of the sea with many huge rooms and bathrooms. But I don’t. My dream house is quite different.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 6,53 kB)
To begin with i`d like to say that alcoholism is widely spread among young people and because of that it has become a serious national problem. Alcohol is widely used by young people. Around 90 per cent of european teenagers over the age of 14 years have tried alcohol at least once. ‘Binge drinking’, drink driving and unsafe sex can all result from the misuse of alcohol.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (2 psl., 4,75 kB)
Foreign languages
2010-04-22
I know two foreign languages, which are : English and Germany. I think that learning languages is different from learning other subjects, for example if you are doing something in other country, you need to know language before learning other subjects. I think that knowing any foreign language is more difficult,than knowing the math, physics, or biology,because,all the facts, all the formulas are the same in the world,but the languages are different not only with its grammer,but also with the structure,spelling and writting. In the future i would like to learn some russian. I am also planning a holiday for next summer in the russia,so if I learn a bit of russian ,so it will help me to communicate with others there.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 3,26 kB)
Parliamentary Supremacy was defined by Dicey in XIX century as firstly, Parliament can legislate on any subject-matter. There are no rules on what Parliament can make laws about. For example, The Act of Settlement 1700 changed the rule on who should succeed to the throne. It can also change its own powers as it was done in the Acts of Parliament 1911 and 1949.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 8,46 kB)
Šiauliai
2010-03-31
Šiaulių lankytinos vietos, aprašymas anglų kalba.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (6 psl., 9,9 kB)
Anglu kalbos prezentacija apie nedarbo lygį ir infliaciją.
Anglų kalba  Projektai   (23 psl., 373,36 kB)
Childhood
2010-03-07
Rašinys apie vaikystę anglų kalba.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 2,9 kB)
Dialogas
2010-03-04
Dialoge du žmonės kalbasi apie buto nuoma, dalinasi darbus ir t.t. Už darbą gavom po 10 su klasioku, nežinau kaip jums pasiseks :)
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1 psl., 3,32 kB)
“ABOUT... PEOPLE and TRIPS”
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5 psl., 9,7 kB)
Kolokacijos - tai žodžių junginiai, dažnai pasitaikantys sakytinėje ir rašytinėje kalboje, sukuriantys naują semantinę reikšmę ir skirstomi pagal savo funkciją ir sandarą. Kaip ir kiti kalbos vienetai, verčiant yra transformuojamos naudojant pagrindinius vertimo trasformacijų tipus – perkėlimą, pakeitimą, įterpimą ir praleidmą. Šio darbo tikslas – išrinkti kolokacijas, sudarytas iš veiksmažodžio ir daiktavardžio analizuojant Europos Sąjungos dokumentus ekologijos tema, pastebėti ir analizuoti kolokacijų vertimo transformacijas. Darbo uždaviniai – apžvelgti įvairių autorių teorinius požiūrius, susijusius su darbo objektu, pateikti asmeninę sampratą, apžvelgti transformacijų dėsningumus ir susisteminti bei apibendrinti tyrimo duomenis.
Kita  Kursiniai darbai   (17 psl., 52,89 kB)
Purpose: to analyze the changes of women’s roles and education, to review critical attitude to the book “The Mill on the Floss”. Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (1819 –1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. She was one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. Her novels, largely set in provincial England, are well known for their realism and psychological insight. She used a male pen name, she said, to ensure that her works were taken seriously. An additional factor may have been a desire to shield her private life from public scrutiny and to prevent scandals attending her relationship with the married George Henry Lewes. She was educated at home and in several schools, and developed a strong evangelical piety.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (20 psl., 513,96 kB)
Valentino Garavani
2010-02-17
Valentino Garavani gimė 1932 m., Milane, vienoje iš mados ir stiliaus sostinių, kur savitumas, originalumas ir tendencingas asmenybės išskirtinumas verčia suktis visa, kas gali būti svarbu. Nežinia, kas formavo Valentino skonį ir kūrybos stilistiką, tačiau dar būdamas mokykloje, jis atsiskleidė kaip asmenybė, tiksliai žinanti savo kelią – kelią link mados aukštumų. Šiame žodžių žaisme, tuomet dar jaunajam Valentino, tilpo keli pasauliai: stiliaus, žaismo, aistros, moteriškumo, gyvybingumo ir energijos, charizmos ir kūrybinės laisvės. 
Ankstus, tačiau tikslingas ir aiškus jaunojo Valentino pašaukimo supratimas, septyniolikmetį paauglį nuvedė į mados šventyklą – Prancūziją, Paryžių. Po kelerių metų kruopštaus darbo „Jean Desses“ ir „Guy Laroche“ mados namuose, atėjo laikas Valentino vardui suskambėti individualiai ir laisvai – taip 1960 m. pradžioje, Romoje, duris atvėrė asmeninė kūrėjo ateljė.
Architektūra ir dizainas  Projektai   (28 psl., 3,18 MB)
Environment
2010-02-09
Many people believe that the way we live our lives today is having an extremely bad effect on the environment. Here are some examples of environmental problems and solutions. Pollution - is damage to the air, sea, rivers, or land caused by chemicals, waste and harmful gases. Pollutants include toxic waste, pesticides, and fertilizers.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 5,4 kB)
Mass Media
2010-02-09
The mass media plays very important role in our life. It helps us to learn what is happening in the world very fast. Mass media includes newspapers, magazines, radio and television. Nowadays there are so many newspapers a. magazines, radio station a. TV channels that we have to be very selective a. choose the best of them.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 7,67 kB)
Land Management
2010-02-08
Anglų referatas. Land management is the process of managing the use and development (in both urban and suburban settings) of land resources in a sustainable way. Land resources are used for a variety of purposes which interact and may compete with one another; therefore, it is desirable to plan and manage all uses in an integrated manner.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (8 psl., 11,64 kB)
Quantity
2010-02-07
Quantity is a kind of property which exists as magnitude or multitude. It is among the basic classes of things along with quality, substance, change, and relation. Quantity was first introduced as quantum, an entity having quantity. Being a fundamental term, quantity is used to refer to any type of quantitative properties or attributes of things. Some quantities are such by their inner nature (as number), while others are functioning as states (properties, dimensions, attributes) of things such as heavy and light, long and short, broad and narrow, small and great, or much and little. Specifically in grammar, quantity is the category of number and has certain forms of impression.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4 psl., 10,83 kB)
Šie metodai turi labai lėtą konvergavimą, bet teoriškai jie gali įveikti vietinį minimumą (local minima.) Kitas trūkumas yra tas, kad vienas turi valdyti daugybę vidinių kintamųjų (kiekvienam svoriui nustatyti triukšmo periodus), kas nėra labai efektyvu. Arba apibrėžti tik išorinius kintamuosius - tokius kaip įėjimo signalas (input), norimas signalas ir žingsnio dydis. Iš pragmatiškos požiūrio pusės labai pageidaujami būtų taip vadinami on-line (tiesioginiai) algoritmai, t.y. algoritmai, kur atskiram pavyzdžiui svoriai kaskart būtų atnaujinami. Bet žvelgiant iš (annealing) modeliavimo pusės į stochastinę on-line atnaujinimo metodų prigimtį , jų realizavimas nebūtų efektyvus. Dėl šių priežasčių bus bandoma atlikti tokį eksperimentą: pridėti triukšmus prie norimo signalo ir eksperimentiškai ištirti tokios procedūros privalumus. Triukšmas taip pat buvo naudojamas gradiento perdavimo (descent) procedūrose. Holmstrom išanalizavo statinio BP algoritmo [Holmstrom and Koistinen, 1992] apibendrinimo galimybę, kuomet atsitiktinis triukšmas įvedamas į išorinius signalus. Šie bandymai parodė, kad apibendrinimas gali būti pagerintas naudojant bandomuosiusose (training) duomenyse papildomus triukšmus. Matsuoka pademonstravo, kad ir triukšmo įvedimas į vieną įėjimo signalą gali pagerinti apibendrinimą (generalization) [Matsuoka, 1992]. Abu autoriai susikoncentravo tik ties tinklo apibendrinimo galimybe, tačiau jie nenagrinėjo triukšmų poveikio mokymosi greičiui ir išėjimo iš local minima galimybės. II Mokymosi su papildomais triukšmais atitinkamame signale analizė II.1 Klasikinis stebimas mokymasis Šioje dalyje kaip mokymosi sistemos prototipas yra naudojamas daugiasluoksnis perceptronas (perceptron) (MLP) su dviem lygiais. Tačiau išvados gali būti atvaizduojamos atsikartojančiose topologijose. Šiame tinkle, xk aprašo iėjimo vektoriaus vieną elementą; yi yra išėjimo lygio i-tasis išėjimas; Wij nusako svorius tarp paslėpto ir išėjimo sluoksnių; Vjk yra svoris tarp įėjimo ir paslėpto sluoksnio; ir Pj nusako paslėpto sluoksnio aktyvavimą. Pateiktas čia apmokymo algoritmas - tai atgalinio mokymo (backpropagation) (BP) algoritmas [Rumelhart et al, 1986]. Tegul di(t) žymi kelis norimus išėjimo neurono i laiko momentu t atsakymus, kur t yra diskretaus laiko indeksas. Galima apibrėžti klaidos signalą, kaip skirtumą tarp norimo atsakymo di(t) ir turimo atsakymo yi(t). Tai nusakomo (1) formulė: Pagrindinis mokymosi tikslas yra minimizuoti kainos funkciją, kurią nusako klaidos signalas ei(t), taip, kad turimas kiekvieno išėjimo neurono atsakymas tinkle statistikine prasme artėtų prie norimo atsakymo. Kriterijus naudojamas kainos funkcijai yra Vidurkio-Kvadrato-Klaidos (Mean-Square-Error) (MSE) kriterijus, apibrėžiamas kaip klaidos kvadrato sumos vidurkio-kvadrato reikšmė [Haykin, 1994]: Kur E yra statistikinis tikimybės operatorius ir sumuojami visi išėjimo sluoksnio neuronai (i=1,…,M). Kainos funkcijos J minimizavimas atsižvelgiant į tinklo parametrus lengvai g.b. formuluojamas gradiento mažinimo (gradient descent) metodu. Šios optimizavimo procedūros problema yra ta, kad jai reikia žinių apie neapibrėžtų procesų, generuojančių pavyzdžius, statistikines charakteristikas. Praktiškai tai gali būti apeita, optimizavimo problemai surandant artimą sprendinį. Klaidos kvadratų sumos momentinė reikšmė (Instantaneous value of the sum of Squared Errors) (ISE) yra pasirinkimo kriterijus [Haykin, 1994]: Po to tinklo parametrai (svoriai) yra pritaikomi ε(t). Faktiškai ši procedūra vadovaujasi taip vadinamu LMS algoritmu, kuomet svoriai yra atnaujinami kartu su kiekvienu pavyzdžiu [Widrow and Hoff, 1960]. II.1 Mokymasis su norimu triukšmingu signalu Vietoj to, kad svorių pritaikymui naudoti norimą signalą di(t), kaip norimas signalas išėjimo neuronui i imamas naujas signalas di(t)+ ni(t), kur ni(t) yra triukšmo periodas. Šiam triukšmo periodui priskiriamas nulinės reišmės baltas triukšmas su σ2 pokyčiu (variance) , nepriklausančiu nei nuo įėjimo signalo xk(t) nei nuo norimų signalų di(t). Neapibrėžtas triukšmo perdavimas yra priskiriamas Gauso ar vienarūšiam perdavimui. Čia norima įrodyti, kad šis naujas norimas signalas neįtakoja galutinės svorių reikšmės statistikine prasme. Tai užtikrina, kad nauja savybė sprendžia originalią optimizavimo problemą. Turint naujus norimus signalus, MSE (4) lygties gali būti perrašyta taip: Nėra sunku įrodyti [Richard and Lippmann 1991; White, 1989; Haykin, 1994], kad (4) lygtis yra lygi Kur ‘|’ simbolis žymi sąlygines galimybes (probabilities), ir 'var' yra kitimų (variance) sutrumpinimas. Pastebėkite, kad antras periodas dešinėje (5) lygties pusėje prisidės prie bendros klaidos J ir koks ir bebūtų mokymosi progresas, jis neįtakos galutinės svorių reikšmės, kadangi jis nėra tinklo svorių funkcija. Optimali svorių reikšmė yra apsprendžiama tiktai pirmo (5) lygties periodo. Kuomet triukšmas yra nulinės reikšmės baltas triukšmas ir jis nepriklauso nei nuo norimo, nei nuo įėjimo signalų, mes turime (6) lygtis rodo, kad triukšmas iš lygties, kuri apibrėš galutines svorių reikšmes, dingsta, taigi mokymassi su norimo triukšmo signalu duos rezultatų, originalios optimizavimo problemos sprendimo prasme, t.y. be triukšmo pridėjimo prie norimo signalo. (learning with the noisy desired signal will yield in the mean the solution for the originaloptimization problem, i.e., without the noise added to the desired signal.) Reiktų konstatuoti, kad ši išvada galioja visoms architektūrų rūšims.Atlikimo funkcijai apibrėžti reikalingi tik išoriniai matavimai (MSE), ir tai nėra susiję nei su topologija nei su kainos funkcijos apibrėžimo būdu (statiniu ar kintamu). Nors šis sprendimas yra patenkinamas, reikia prisiminti, kad mus domina on-line algoritmas, kur yra mokymosi dinamika, t.y. kaip mokymosi progresas yra veikiamas triukšmų. II.3 On-line algoritmas mokymuisi veikiant norimam triukšmingam signalui Reiktų pažymėti, kad atliekamos, modifikacijos, jokiais būdais neveikia atgalinio mokymosi algoritmo realizacijos, kadangi yra modifikuojamas tik signalas, kuris yra įvedamas kaip norimas rezultatas. Taigi, siūlomos modifikacijos gali būti taikomos dar neegzistuojančioms modeliavimo sistemoms. Svarbi problema, kaip modeliavimo metu valdyti triukšmų kaitą (variance). Dėl to tolimesniame skyriuje bus apžvelgiama tiukšmų įtaka momentiniam gradientui. II.4 Norimo triukšmingo signalo gradiente analizė. Svorinio vektoriuas pritaikymo statiniame BP algoritme formulė, tiklui atvaizduotame 1 pav. norimame signale be triukšmų yra [Hertz et al.,1991] Svoriams tarp paslėpto sluoksnio ir išorinio sluoksnio, ir Svoriams tarp iėjimo sluoksnio ir paslėpto sluoksnio, kur ŋ yra žingsnio dydis. Su triukšmingu norimu signalu, ISE (3) lygties tampa: Lygtyse (7) ir (8) įrašant naują reikšmę εnoisy(t), gausime lygtis Palyginus lygtis (7) su (10) ir (8) su (11) daroma išvada, kad triukšmo pridėjimo prie norimo signalo poveikis, tai extra stochastinio periodo svoriniame vektorių taikyme įtraukimas, kas gali būti modeliuojama kaip pridėtinis momentinio gradiento triukšmas (pertirbation) betriukšminiam atvejui. Stochastinio periodo bendra forma Kur N(t) yra veiksmo funkcija gauta pakeitus originalią klaidą d(t)-y(t) įvestu triukšmu n(t). Panagrinėkime papildomų periodų (extra terms) statistines savybes (10) ir (11) lygtyse ir pastebėkime kaip jos veikia svorinių vektorių statistiką. Bet pirmiausia, apibrėžkime atsitiktinius kintamuosius: Jeigu atsitiktiniai kintamieji ir nepriklauso vienas nuo kito, ir g ir f funkcijos yra Borelo funkcijos, tuomet f ir gtaip pat yra nepriklausomos [Feller, 1966]. Realiausios funkcijos f(x) įskaitant sigmoido funkciją, plačiai naudojamą neuroniniuose tinkluose yra Borelio funkcijos. Taigi, galima daryti išvadą, kad (10) ir (11) lygtyse triukšmas n(t) nepriklauso nuo O taip pat ir nuo Todėl gali būti užrašytos papildomų periodų (extra terms) tikimybės ir Jų kitimas (variance) ir Iš (14) ir (15) lygties galima daryti išvadą, kad nulinės reikšmės atsitiktinis triukšmas norimame signale nedaro įtakos svoriniams vektoriams, taigi pagrindinė papildomo stochastinio periodo (extra stochastic term) svorio atnaujinimo reikšmė yra nulis. Iš (16) ir (17) lygties daromos dvi svarbios išvados: triukšmas pridėtas prie norimo signalo veikia svorio atnaujinimo kitimą proporciškai kiekvieno svorio jautrumui. Tai reiškia, kad atskiro triukšmo šaltinis išėjime yra išverčiamas į skirtingus triukšmų stiprumus kiekvienam svoriui. Antra, žingsnio dydis arba išorinio triukšmo šaltinio kitimas valdys papildomų periodų (variance of the extra terms) svoriniuose vektorių prisitaikymo formulėse kitimą, gaunamą pridedant triukšmą prie norimo signalo. Pastebima, kad, kai = 0 arba triukšmo kitimas yra nulis, tuomet stochastinis periodas (stochastic terms) išnyksta - lieka tik originalus svorio atnaujinimas (t.y. sprendžiama originali optimizacijos problema). Šie aspektai ir idėjos gautos iš globalios optimizacijos pateikia empirines taisykles išorinių triukšmų šaltinių valdymui, gaunat reikšmingus rezultatus. Modeliavimo pradžioje norėtųsi svoriams uždėti atsitiktinius trikdžius (perturbation), tam, kad būtų leista algoritmui pabėgti iš vietinio minimumo (local minima.). Tačiau artėjant prie adaptacijos pabaigos trikdžių (perturbation) kitimas turi būti sumažintas iki nulio taip, kad svoriai galėtų pasiekti reikšmes duotas originalios optimizacijos problemos. Toliau bus naudojamas (annealing) tvarkaraštis, pasiūlytas Moody [Darken, Chang, and Moody, 1992] Kur o yra inicijuojamo žingsnio dydis, c yra paieškos laiko konstanta, ir NI - iteracijos numeris. Šių konstantų reikšmės turės būti apibrėžtos eksperimentiškai, kadangi jos priklauso nuo problemų. III Modeliavimo rezultatai Patvirtinant anksčiau atliktą analizę, modeliavimo rezultatai bus pateikiami dviem pavyzdžiais. Vienas jų naudoja dviejų-lygių MLP, taip vadinamos lygiškumo problemos (parity problem), kuri buvo pademonstruota vietinio minimumo (local minima) atveju, pažinimui [Rumelhart et al, 1986]. Iš modeliavimo rezultatų bus matyti, kad mokymasis labiausiai gali būti pagerintas naudojant numatytą metodą (proposed approach) ir globalų minimumą, pasiektą statistikine prasme. Kitas pavyzdys naudoja dinaminį neuroninį tinklą TDNN [Waibel et al., 1989] laiko signalų modeliavimui. Antro modeliavimo rezultatai taip pat patvirtina ankstesnę analizę. III.I Eksperimentai su MLP Spresime 3 bitų lygiškumo problemą. Tinklo dydis 3-3-1, t.y. 3 įėjimo neuronai, 3 paslėpti neuronai, ir 1 išėjimo neuronas. Netiesiškumas (nonlinearity) yra logistinė funkcija. Tiesioginis atgalinis mokymas (backpropagation) yra naudojamas abiem atvejais. Buvo pridėtas Gauso (Gaussian) triukšmas su  =0.001 prie norimo signalo ir parinkti atitinkami parametrai 18 Lygtyje: c= 500 ir o= 0.3. Rezultatai parodyti 2 paveikslėlyje. Stora linija vaizduoja mokymasi su triukšmingu norimu signalu, o punktyrinė linija - su originaliu norimu signalu. Šis pavyzdys rodo, kad mokymasis artėja prie lokalaus minimumo, (local minimum) kuomet naudojamas originalus norimas signalas, bet naudojant triukšmingą norimą signalą mokymasis pasiekia globalų minimumą (global minimum) . Svarbu pabrėžti, kad mokymasis su originaliu signalu, naudoja pastovų žingsnio dydį, kai tuo tarpu signalo su triukšmais žingsnis yra gaunamas iš (18) lygties. Naudojant skirtingus žingsnio dydžius ir skirtingus pradinius (initial) svorius, buvo pasiekti panašūs rezultatai. Tam, kad patvirtinti šio algoritmo konvergavimo galimybę, buvo remiamasi Monte Carlo modeliavimai su 100 bandymu. Rezultatai pavaizduoti 3 Paveiksle, kur punktyrinė linija yra 100 veiksmų rezulatai originaliam signalui, o stora linija - 100 veiksmų rezulatatai triukšmingam signalui. Šiame eksperimente, svoriai yra parenkami atsistiktinai, o žingsnio dydis o atsitiktinai parenkamas iš intervalo [0,1, 0,7]. Kuomet globalus minimumas (global minimum) yra 0, tuomet yra lengva paskaičiuoti reikšmę ir pokytį (mean and variance) 100 galutinių klaidų, kurios pateiktos 1 Lentelėje. Dar daugiau, mokymasisi su triukšmingu signalu laike 99% priartėjo prie globalaus minimumo, o su originaliu signalu tik 26%. Iš 1 Lentelės, galima daryti išvadą, kad su triukšmingu signalu, mokymasis konverguoja į globalų minimumą; bet su originaliu signalu, mokymasis statistikine prasme nekonverguoja. Taigi, iš šių modeliavimo rezultatų galima daryti išvadą, kad triukšmingas signalas leidžia mokymosi algoritmui išeiti iš lokalaus minimumo (local minima). III. II Eksperimentai su dinaminiu neuroniniu tinklu III.I dalyje buvo pademonstruoti statinio neuroninio tinklo modeliavimo rezultatai. Tam, kad patvirtinti, jog aprašytas metodas taip pat veikia ir dinaminiuose neuroniniuose tinkluose. Dinaminės sistemos modeliavimui bus naudojamas TDNN [Waibel et al.,1989]. Bus nagrinėjama tokia sistema, Kur ',' žymi diferencijavimo operatorių. Sistemos įėjimai yra sinusoidžių aibė, Su atsitiktine faze l.. 4 ir 5 Paveikslėliuose vaizduojami sistemos įėjimo ir atitinkamai normalizuoti išėjimo signalai. TDNN tinklo struktūra demonstruojama 6 Paveikslėlyje, kur naudojamas keturių lygių vėlinimas. Šiame tinkle, kaip įėjimai į paslėptą lygį naudojami tik du įėjimo signalai x(t) ir x(t-4). Netiesiškumas (nonlinearity) paslėptuose neuronuose - tai logistinė funkciją. Išėjimas turi vieną tiesinį neuroną. Mokymosi algoritmas - tai BP, kur pavyzdžių klaidos surandamos atimant tinklo išėjimą y(t) iš sistemos d(t) išėjimo. Mokymosi kreivės pavaizduotos 7 Paveikslėlyje, kur triukšmo signalo žingsnio dydis surandamas naudojant (18) Lygtį, kur c=10, 0.01, ir triukšmo kitimas 2 =0.001 . Aiškiai matyti, kad su triukšmingu signalu konvergavimas yra greitesnis ir pasiekiamas žemesnis MSE. Naudojant skirtingus žingsnio dydžius ir svorius, pasiekiami panašūs rezultatai su MSE minimumu lygiu 0,0091. Paveikslėlyje 8 pavaizduotos mokymosi kreivės 100 mokymosi veiksmų, kur žingsnio dydis atsitiktinai parenkamas iš intervalo [0,1, 0,01], o svoriai taip pat yra atsitiktiniai skaičiai. Kadangi nėra žinomas šios problemos globalus minimumas, todėl naudojamas MSE minimali reikšmė 0,0091 kaip globalaus minimumo įvertis. 2 Lentelė atspindi statistikinius rezultatus 100 eksperimentų. 72% (trails) su triukšmingu signalu pasiekė globalų minimumą, ir tik 8% (trails) pasiekė globalų rezultatą su originaliu signalu. Daroma išvada, kad mokymasisi su triukšmingais signalais yra mažiau nepastovus ir mokymosi kreivės taip pat yra daug lygesnės. (smoother) IV.Discussion Eksperimentiškai buvo pademonstruota, kad mokymasis su triukšmingais signalais padidina pastovaus žingsnio dydžio BP algoritmo paieškos galimybes. Tai yra pasiekiama be papildomos kainos algoritmų realizavimo perioduose (This is accomplished at no extra cost in terms of algorithm implementation,), kadangi naudojamas tiesioginis atgalinis mokymas (straight backpropagation.) Papildomos savybės yra gaunamos įvedant nulinės reikšmės valdomo kitimo Gauso triukšmą ir žingsnio dydžio nustatymui pasinaudojant (18) Lygtimi. Buvo pademonstruota, kad triukšmo pridėjimas prie norimo signalo svorių atnaujinimo formulėse prideda nulinės reikšmės stochastinį periodą (that adding noise to the desired signal adds a zero mean stochastic term in the weightupdate formulas.). Nors atskiras triukšmo signalas ir yra įvedamas į norimą signalą, tačiau stochastinio periodo kitimas kiekvienam tinklo svoriui skiriasi (proporcingai kiekvieno svorio jautrumui). Dar daugiau, šio periodo kitimas tiesiogiai valdomas žingsnio dydžio arba išorinio triukšmo šaltinio kitimo. Tai reiškia, kad triukšmo pridėjimas prie norimo signalo yra labai paprasta ir efektyvi procedūra mokymosi proceso ištraukimo iš lokalaus minimumo. Kitimas arba žingsnio dydis turi būti parinktas (anealing) pritaikymo metu. Parinkimo (anealing) realizavimui buvo panaudota Moodžio paieška ir konvergavimo procedūra, tačiau kiekvienai problemai spręsti parametrai turi būti surandami eksperimentiškai. Žingsnio dydžio planavimas, toks, kad būtų įveiktas lokalus minimumas, išlieka atviras klausimas ne tik šiame metode, bet taip pat ir kituose stochastiniuose algoritmuose tokiuose kaip sumodeliuotas parinkimas (simulated annealing) [Kirkpatrick et al., 1983]. Mokymosi algoritmų lankstumo padidinimui yra siūlomi du skirtingi žingsnių dydžiai, vienas gradientui ir kitas - triukšmui. Ši procedūra turi neišvengiamą jungtį su globaliu optimizavimo metodu, vadinamu stochastiniu funkciniu nesklandumų šalinimu (stochastic functional smoothing) [Rubinstein, 1981 and 1986]. Priede aiškinama, kad tiesioginė stochastinio funkcinio nesklandumų šalinimo versija sutrikdo gradientą kartu su triukšmo periodu proporcingai Hesano paviršiui. ( an on-line ver-sion of stochastic functional smoothing perturbs the true gradient with a noise term proportional to the Hessian of the performance surface.) Kuomet signalas pridedamas prie norimo signalo, tikrinis (true) gradientas taip pat yra paveikiamas triukšmų periodo. Šiuo atveju poveikis yra proporcingas naujos veikimo funkcijos gradientui, kuris gaunamas iš originalaus skirtumo tarp d(t) ir y(t), kartu su įvestu triukšmu. Šis paviršius yra susijęs su originaliu, bet gali ir žymiai skirtis. Taigi, kuomet triukšmų šaltinis paprastai yra nustatomas į nulinę Gauso reikšmę, galima tikėtis mažiau optimalių rezultatų, lyginant su stochastinės funkcijos lyginimu (stochastic functional smoothing.). Tačiau algoritmo paprastumas ir geras veikimas gautas eksperimentuose skatina toliau dirbti prie šio metodo. Priedas Šio priedo tikslas yra susieti triukšmo pridėjimą prie norimo signalo naudojant stochastinį funkcinį lyginimo metodą, kuris yra globali optimizacijos procedūra. A.I Stochastinio funkcinio lyginimo optimizacijos apžvalga Stochastiniame funkciniame lyginime, originali neišgaubta funkcija yra perkeliama pagalbinės lyginimo funkcijos, kuri turi kai kurias optimizavimo savybes (t.y. atskiras minimumas). Dirbant su lyginimo funkcija, gali būti atsrastas optimalios problemos globalus minimumas . Lyginimo kainos funkcijos klasė parametrizuota ß yra apibrėžiama kaip [Rubinstein, 1981 and 1986] Kur ß yra valdymo parametras, o y yra atsitiktinis dydis. Dėl J ˆ (wtam, kad būti naudingam originaliai optimizacijai, h ˆ (v impulso atsakymas turi tenkinti keleta sąlygų [žr. Rubinstein, 1981 ir 1986 detaliau], taip, kad parametras apsprendžia lyginimo taikomo J(w) laipsnį. Dideliam lyginimo poveikis yra didelis ir atvirkščiai. Kuomet  0 J ˆ () = J , tuomet nėra lyginimo. Intuityviai aišku, kad norint išvengti lokalaus minimumo, optimizacijos pradžioje  turi būti pakankamai didelis. Tačiau siekiant optimumo lyginimo efektyvumas turi būti mažinamas leidžiant ß artėti prie nulio. Taigi minimumo taške w* laukiamas sutapimas tarp J(w) ir J ˆ ( Atitinkamai, konstruojant iteratyvią w* paieškos procedūrą, yra reikalinga lyginimo funkcijų aibė J ˆ(ß s=1,2,...... Jei signalo atsakymo dalis yra išrenkama kaip daugianormalinė funkcija su dydžiu n ir kitimu ß, tai Lyginimo kainos funkcijos gradientas gali būti įvertintas taip [Styblinski and Tang, 1990] Kur N yra pavyzdžių su daugybe kintamųjų iš (23) Lygties skaičius. Taigi, lyginimo kainos funkcijos gradientas gali būti randamas iš originalios kainos funkcijos. A.II Tiesioginė stochastinės lyginimo funkcijos Optimizavimo realizacija Susiejami triukšmo norimame signale poveikis ((10) ir (11) lygtys) su tiesiogine lyginimo funkcinių gradientų realizacija ((24) Lygtis)). Bus taikoma stochastinės aproksimacijos savybė [Robbins and Monro, 1951]. Kuomet ISE aproksimuoja (stochastine prasme) į MSE ir gradiento operatorius yra tiesinis operatorius, lyginimo kainos funkcijos gradientas εˆ gali būti įvertintas pagal analogiją su Lygtimi (25), taip Dėl supaprastinimo, čia yra ignoruojamas diskretinio laiko indeksas t. Reiktų pabrėžti, kad iš L.(24), kuri atspindi originalios stochastinės lyginimo funkcijos optimizacijos artėjimą prie L.(26), kuri yra tiesioginis L.(24) įvertis, tik vienintelė stochastinės aproksimacijos savybė buvo taikoma taip, kad būtų garantuotas tiesioginio įvertinimo stabilumas [Robbins and Monro, 1951; Kusher and Calrk, 1978; Wang and Principe, 1995]. Tiesioginis vienpusisi įvertis naudojamas L.(26) yra pagrindas gradiento įverčio naudojamo LMS ir BP algoritmuose. L.(26) išreiškia įvertinimą ε(w) gradiento, kuomet w yra paveikiamas atsitiktinio kintamojo βv j . Šis metodas praktiniam realizavimui yra per brangus, kadangi svoriai turi būti veikiami (gradiento skaičiavimui pageidaujamas antras tinklas). Taigi, šis metodas tiesiogiai nėra įgyvendinamas. Realizacijos supaprastinimui siūloma atlikti Teiloro seriją ekspansijų apie w, ir antrame etape jį suskaidyti. Literatūra 1. 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Kirkpatrick, S., et. al., “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671-680. 9. Krogh, A. and Hertz, J., “Generalization in a Linear Perceptron in the Present of Noise,” J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25(1992) 1135-1147. 10. Kushner, H., “Asymptotic Global Behavior for Stochastic Approximation and Diffusions with Slowly Decreasing Noise Effects: Global Minimization via Monte Carlo,” SIAM J. APPL.MATH. Vol. 47, No. 1 Feb., 1987. 11. Kushner, H, and Clark, D. S., Stochastic Approximation Methods for Constrained and Uncon-strained Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978. 12. Matsuoka, K., “Noise Injection into Inputs in Back-Propagation Learning,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1992. 13. Richard M., Lippmann R. P., “Neural network classifiers estimate Bayesian a posteriori probabil-ity,” Neural Computation, 3, 461-483, 1991. 14. Robbins, H., and S. Monroe, “A stochastic approximation method,” Annals of Mathematical Sta-tistics 22, 1951. 15. Rognvaldsson, T., “On Langevin Updating in Multilayer Perceptrons,” Neural Computation, 6.916-926, 1994. 16. Rubinstein, R., Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method, Wiley,1981. 17. Rubinstein, R., Monte Carlo Optimization, Simulation and Sensitivity of the Queueing Networks,Wiley, 1986. 18. Rumelhart et al, Parallel Distributed Processing, Vol.1, MIT Press, 1986. 19. Styblinski, M.A., and Tang, T.-S, “Experiments in Nonconvex Optimization: Stochastic Approxi-mation with Function Smoothing and Simulated Annealing,” Neural Networks, Vol.3, 1990. 20. Szu, H., “Fast simulated annealing,” AIP conf. Proc. 151:Neural Networks for Computing, Snow-bird, UT, 1986. 21. Waibel, A., T. Hanazawa, G. Hinton, K. Shikano, K. J. Lang, “Phoneme recognition using time-delay neural networks,” IEEEE Trams. ASSP-37, 1989. 22. Wang, C., and J. C. Principe, “On-line stochastic functional smoothing optimization for neural network training, submitted to Neural Networks, 1995. 23. Werbos, p., “Generalization of backpropagation with application to a recurrent gas market model,” Neural Networks, 1, 339-356. 24. Widrow, B., and Hoff, M., “Adaptive switching circuits,” IRE WESCON Convention Record, pp.96-104, 1960.
Informatika  Kursiniai darbai   (164,25 kB)
Introduction Enduring several border changes, Soviet deportations, a massacre of its Jewish population, and German and Polish repatriations during and after World War II, Lithuania has maintained a fairly stable percentage of ethnic Lithuanians (from 79.3% in 1959 to 83.5% in 2002). Lithuania's citizenship law and the Constitution meet international and OSCE standards, guaranteeing universal human and civil rights. In Lithuania like in other East and Central European countries, the demographic development during the last 10 years has been highly specific. During the last 10 years (1997-2007) Lithuania has lost 7.5% of its population. During every of these years, the number of emigrants exceeded the number immigrating and the number of deaths exceeded the births. At the start of year 2004, Lithuania’s population numbered 3,445,900. The population losses are only partially offset by immigrants, principally from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. In 1992 – 1998, population of Lithuania dropped by 45 000 reaching 3 702 000 in early 1999. During this period emigration was responsible for the decrease by 40 700 people. The average of people per 1 square kilometer is 51.8 (2007). The highest population per 1 square km. is in centre of republic – it reaches 50 or more. Also in West and in Vilnius municipality same situation. In East population reaches less or more than 20 people. Population by sex and age Since the early 1990s, the new trends of all demographic processes – fertility, mortality, and migration – have significantly altered the age structure of the population. Since 1992, the proportion of elderly people has been clearly on the rise. During 1992–1999, the share of population aged 65 and over increased from 11.3% to 13.4%, while the share of children aged 0–14 dropped from 22.6% to 19.8%. The 15–64 age group experienced minor changes over the period, and in 1999, comprised 67% Due to the country’s swift industrialization and urbanization, the demographic transition had been proceeding at a high speed culminating in its final stage, and had resulted in a rapid population ageing. From the table we can see that in 2006 were more people than in 2007. It depends of people emigration and less immigration. Also we can see that always it was more females than males. In total, males - ~158 0000 females - ~180 0000. Population by ethnic groups During the Soviet period Lithuania, in contrast to the neighboring Baltic countries, preserved its ethnic homogeneity. According to 1989 census data, shortly before the regaining of independence, Lithuanians constituted 79.6%, Russians 9.4% and Poles 7.0% of the population. The emigration of Slavic population, notably Russians, to the East, of the Jewish population to the West, and return of Lithuanians from the former USSR in the early 1990s have further increased the share of ethnic Lithuanians, who accounted for 81.6% of the total population at the beginning of 1997. Among the Baltic States, Lithuania has the most homogeneous population. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusian's, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups. Such a high percentage of ethnic Lithuanians might be influenced by the fact that in the early 1990s, the newly established government of Lithuania decided to grant citizenship to anyone who lived in Lithuania and who wished to have Lithuanian citizenship. Thus a number of people might have been assimilated
Geografija  Referatai   (11,86 kB)
Introduction Enduring several border changes, Soviet deportations, a massacre of its Jewish population, and German and Polish repatriations during and after World War II, Lithuania has maintained a fairly stable percentage of ethnic Lithuanians (from 79.3% in 1959 to 83.5% in 2002). Lithuania's citizenship law and the Constitution meet international and OSCE standards, guaranteeing universal human and civil rights. In Lithuania like in other East and Central European countries, the demographic development during the last 10 years has been highly specific. During the last 10 years (1997-2007) Lithuania has lost 7.5% of its population. During every of these years, the number of emigrants exceeded the number immigrating and the number of deaths exceeded the births. At the start of year 2004, Lithuania's population numbered 3,445,900. The population losses are only partially offset by immigrants, principally from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Population by age and sex Since the early 1990s, the new trends of all demographic processes – fertility, mortality, and migration – have significantly altered the age structure of the population. Since 1992, the proportion of elderly people has been clearly on the rise. During 1992–1999, the share of population aged 65 and over increased from 11.3% to 13.4%, while the share of children aged 0–14 dropped from 22.6% to 19.8%. The 15–64 age group experienced minor changes over the period, and in 1999, comprised 67%
Geografija  Pateiktys   (391,83 kB)
Palanga (pop. 17.6 thousand; www.palanga.lt ) is the biggest and most universal seaside resort of Lithuania. The Lithuanian seacoast is famous for its beaches of beautiful white sand and dunes, which can be found nowhere else on the Baltic Sea coast. Originally a fishermen’s village, Palanga was first mentioned in the written sources in the 12th century. The inhabitants were engaged not only in fishery, they also gathered amber which would reach the distant countries of Europe and Asia via the merchants’ routes. In the 19th century, Palanga started developing into a health resort, which was a great merit of the dynasty of the Count Tiškevičius (Tyszkiewicz), who moved to the town at that time. A park was laid out, a new palace was built, a port was equipped, a natural therapy centre was launched, a new church was constructed, and the sea pier was built then. During the press prohibition period, the route of book spreaders was crossing Palanga. The first national play in Lithuania, “Amerika pirtyje” (America in the Bath) by A. Keturakis, was staged in this resort in 1899. Over recent years, a great number of new hotels and guesthouses of various levels have been opened in the resort. Palanga also boasts several high-standard sanatoriums that provide treatment for the vestibular mechanism, nervous system as well as cardio-vascular disorders. Resting can be combined with heath improving here. The resort boasts a large variety of pubs, cafes, restaurants, discotheques, bars, night clubs, and casinos. Those who enjoy active holiday are offered pedal boats, bicycles, horse-riding, tennis courts, pools, a complex of baths, etc. A number of trails are intended for cycling or hiking. The Palanga Regional Park, stretching somewhat southward in the direction of Klaipėda, attracts visitors by impressive scenes of wild and severe nature. One of the most beautiful places in Palanga is the Tiškevičius Palace surrounded by a large park that was laid out by E. Andre. Presently, this building houses the Amber Museum, which holds a great variety of amber pieces and the collection of inclusions, the biggest in the world. Amber is the symbol of Lithuania. In August evenings, concerts and poetry readings are hosted in the terrace of the palace. Palanga offers a big choice of cultural entertainments during the holiday season. The resort is home to a very interesting museum of Antanas Mončys, the Lithuanian artist who created in Paris. Its small exposition shows expressive works of big artistic power. The Savickas Gallery often hosts memorable exhibitions of modern artists. One can see the views of old Palanga in the Local Lore Museum of the town. Palanga is the resort submerged in the shadows of trees, which is fascinating at any season of the year. During a colder period, it is an ideal place to hold conferences and seminars.
Geografija  Rašiniai   (128,04 kB)
Land, people and language Geography Vietnamese describe Vietnam as resembling a shoulder pole with a rice basket at each end. The image is useful, for the heavily populated, grain-producing areas of modern Vietnam are in the extreme North (in the Red River Delta, also called the Tonkin Delta) and South (the Mekong Delta), with a thin, less productive, and less densely inhabited coastal region linking them. The Red River and its major tributaries are vital for irrigation, transportation, and hydroelectric power but are subject to violent and unpredictable flooding. Despite their dangers, the rivers deposit rich silt on the lowlands, and the Tonkin Delta has been intensively cultivated since the origins of Viet settlement. This remains true today, with irrigated or “wet” rice the principal crop. Central Vietnam is an extremely thin region, only about thirty miles from the South China Sea to Laos at its narrowest. Given their proximity to the South China Sea and its teeming marine life, most of the villages combine farming with fishing. Central Vietnam is intersected by Seventeenth Parallel, which was a contested political boundary from 1954 to 1975. The South’s major river is one of the world’s great rivers, the Mekong. The Mekong Delta is modern Vietnam’s second great agriculture and population centre, although the Viet did not begin significant settlement there until the 1600s. In addition to rice, still the main crop, sugarcane, bananas, and coconuts are produced abundantly. Ethnolinguistic groups Although the precise physical origins of the modern Vietnamese people remain in dispute, most scholars agree that they derive from a combination of aboriginal Australoid peoples with Indonesian and Mongoloid peoples from outside the region. Since historical times, the Viet have been a sedentary, rice-growing, village-dwelling people. Today there are more than 80,000,000 Vietnamese citizens, most of whom are ethnic Viet and live packed on about 20 percent of Vietnam’s territory. The rest of Vietnam – the remaining 80 percent – is for the most part left to non-Viet peoples. These areas are mountainous and covered by jungle and brush. Vietnam’s mountains and high plains are thus inhabited by a variety of non-Viet ethnic groups, many of them similar to the peoples who live in Laos and Thailand. There are at least sixty different peoples in this category; collectively they total more than 4,000,000 people. In English they have been called the “hill peoples,” “tribal minorities,” or, more recently, “highlanders.” Several non-Vietnamese ethnolinguistic groups also inhabit the lowlands of today’s Vietnam. In southern Vietnam there remains a group of Khmer Krom. Krom means “South” in Khmer and the Khmer Krom are the remnants of the time when the Khmer Empire controlled the Mekong Delta. The Chams are another non-Viet lowland people, the human vestiges of an ancient empire called Champa that was conquered and absorbed by the Viet in the fifteenth century. There is also a large Chinese population in Vietnam, totaling almost 1,000,000. Many Chinese have intermarried with Viet and are presently almost undistinguishable from them. Others have retained their Chinese identities by living in distinct communities, teaching their children the Chinese language and culture, and maintaining clan organizations. The Vietnamese Language Scholars do not agree on the best way to classify the Vietnamese language, which seems to share structures with and borrow words from many of the languages spoken in East and Southeast Asia. Vietnamese is tonal, suggesting an affinity with the Sino-Tibetan family, which includes the Chinese and Tai languages. It also has structural similarities to languages in the Mon-Khmer group of the Austro-Asiatic family, which are not tonal. Still other scholars view Vietnamese as a unique language that virtually constitutes a family unto itself, albeit one that has borrowed extensively from other families. Throughout their history, the Viet have used a variety of writing systems. Like many other Asian nations, the Viet began their experience with writing by borrowing the “ready-made” system of Chinese characters (chu Han). From at least the thirteenth century onward, Viet scholars developed a second system, an indigenous character-based vernacular (chu nom) that adopted and adapted some of the symbols of Chinese characters to express Vietnamese-language sounds. Another system, chu quoc ngu, which remains in usage today, was invented by Catholic missionaries in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. They developed an alphabetical system based on a smaller number of Latin letters, which in combination express the sounds of spoken Vietnamese, including Chinese loan words. After the end of colonialism in 1954, quoc ngu became the official writing system for government business and public education on both sides of the Seventeenth Parallel, and it remains so today in the S.R.V. From the phonological point of view, Vietnamese is a monosyllabic and tonal language. It’s monosyllabism is manifested in the articulation of syllables in connected speech, but many of its words are disyllabic and even polysyllabic. For English speakers, the tonal quality of Vietnamese is one of its most interesting aspects. Each word is formed with at least one vowel that is voiced with either level or changing pitch. Depending on regional variations, there may be four to six of these pitches or tones. Unlike the intonations that English speakers use to express shades of meaning or emphasis, these changes in tone or musical pitch affect the lexical meaning of Vietnamese words. Vietnamese is an isolating language: words do not change their forms, and grammatical categories cannot be expressed by prefixes or suffixes. Although syntax and contest are usually relied on to indicate grammatical meaning, function words may be added for clarification. However, Vietnamese words remain invariable, be they singular or plural, masculine or feminine, subject or object.
Geografija  Referatai   (45,13 kB)
The Ibis
2010-01-04
Nipponia nippon Endangered Until the late 1800s, this ibis nested over a huge area of mainland Asia and Japan. With the cutting of pine woodlands, where it nested, and the use of pesticides in rice paddies and marshlands, which were its feeding grounds, the bird's numbers declined drastically. It is now designated in Japan as a Special Bird for Protection, and in Korea as National Treasure No. 198. It also has full legal protection in the former USSR. Currently, there are about 40 birds in the wild which survive in South Shaanxi, China. The Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) is a species of wading bird of the ibis family, Threskiornithidae, which breeds in sub-Saharan Africa, SE Iraq and formerly in Egypt, where it was venerated and often mummified as a symbol of the god Thoth. It has also been introduced into France, Italy, Spain, United States (S.Florida) and Australia. The bird nests in tree colonies, often with other large wading birds such as herons. It builds a stick nest often in a Baobab and lays 2-3 eggs. The Sacred Ibis occurs in marshy wetlands and mud flats, both inland and on the coast. It will also visit cultivation and rubbish dumps. It feeds on various fish, frogs and other water creatures, as well as insects. An adult individual is 68 cm long with all-white body plumage apart from dark plumes on the rump. The bald head and neck, thick curved bill and legs are black. The white wings show a black rear border in flight. Sexes are similar, but juveniles have dirty white plumage, a smaller bill and some feathering on the neck. This bird is usually silent, but occasionally makes some croaking noises. The introduced and rapidly growing populations in southern Europe are seen as a potential problem, since these large predators can devastate breeding colonies of species such as terns. They also compete successfully for nest sites with Cattle and Little Egrets. The adaptable Ibises supplement their diet by feeding at rubbish tips, which helps them to survive the winter in these temperate regions. The Sacred Ibis is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.
Biologija  Pateiktys   (1,49 MB)
Good afternoon, everyone. I’m here today to speak of labour market in Lithuania in recent years, especially after integration to EU. This talk is divided into 4 main parts. 1) Firstly, I’d like to look at Official situation of Lithuanian labour market through the recent years 2) Secondly I’ll be talking about Jobs in shortage and demand and Need of high Qualification 3) Thirdly, Emigration from Lithuania in 1990-2002 4) My fourth point will be about Emigration from Lithuania after entering EU and the wages. Finally I’ll be looking at the conclusions ________ My talk will last about 15 min If you have any questions, please stop me at any time, and I will be happy to answer them Official situation of Lithuanian labour market through the recent years Having rewieved the changes which have taken place in Lithuania since the restoration of independence in 1990, it can be said that the market economy in Lithuania is becoming stronger and that this process is irreversible. This period has seen the creation in Lithuania of a consistent system for the realization of social security and labour market policies. The labour market in Lithuania has in the recent past been characterised by positive changes influenced by the implementation of the country’s investment and economic policies as well as the means used to realize the Lithuanian Republic’s employment programme: the number of employed is increasing, the number of people out of work is decreasing along with unemployment rate. The fundamental right to social security and work is provided for by Article 48 of the1992 Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, which states that every person is free to do the job or business of their choice, and that they have the right to suitable, safe and healthy work conditions, to receive fair payment for work, and social security if they are unemployed. The work of foreign nationals in the Republic of Lithuania is regulated by law. Researches made by interviewing people out of work, give us the numbers of 75 % of those, registered the jobless in Labour Exchange really wanna find a job, and there is yearly a downward numbers interested just in unemployment relief. Labour market suppose that in year 2004 the number of the unemployed in average can be around 145 000, this is 20 000 less than the year before.
Introduction Companies that earn a profit can do one of three things: pay that profit out to shareholders, reinvest it in the business through expansion, debt reduction or share repurchases, or both. When a portion of the profit is paid out to shareholders, the payment is known as a dividend.(http://beginnersinvest.about.com/od/dividendsdrips1/a/aa040904.htm) In English Wikipedia is written that dividends are payments made by a corporation to its shareholder members. It is the portion of corporate profits paid out to stockholders. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dividend) Then you want to make a financial decision, you have to look at dividend policy and what rise it will make to ceiling‘s stock‘s value, and, how it will suit shareholders needs. A company's dividend policy is the company's usual practice when deciding how big a dividend payment to make. Dividend policy may be explicitly stated, or investors may infer it from the dividend payments a company has made in the past. If a company states a dividend policy it usually takes the form of a target pay-out ratio. If a company has not stated a dividend policy then investors will infer it. (http://moneyterms.co.uk/dividend-policy/). Work purpose: In this work we will try to look over what is dividend, dividends types and dividend policy. Work tasks: • Understand what is dividend and find out dividends types; • Find out what are dividend paying methods; • Find out what is dividend policy and find out its types; • Establish basic dividend policy theoretical propositions, their differences; • Look over what dividend policy types are used in practical. . 2. Types of dividends "Money For Nothing" is not only the title of a song by Dire Straits in the '80s, but also the feeling many investors get when they receive a dividend. All you have to do is buy shares in the right company and you'll receive some of its earnings. ( http://www.investopedia.com/articles/stocks/07/dividend_implications.asp ). Dividends can be payed in cash or stock. 2.1. Cash In the majority of cases dividends are issued on a cash basis. For example, if a shareholder holds 1,000 shares and the per share dividend is $1, the investor will receive a check for $1,000 (http://www.mysmp.com/fundamental-analysis/dividends.html). In Investopedia is written that a cash dividend is a payment made by a company out of its earnings to investors in the form of cash (check or electronic transfer). This transfers economic value from the company to the shareholders instead of the company using the money for operations. Cash dividends is that receivers of cash dividends must pay tax on the value of the distribution, lowering its final value. Cash dividends are beneficial, however, in that they provide shareholders with regular income on their investment along with exposure to capital appreciation. (http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/05/stockcashdividend.asp). English Wikipedia gives such a definicion of cash dividends : are those paid out in the form of a check. Such dividends are a form of investment income and are usually taxable to the recipient in the year they are paid. This is the most common method of sharing corporate profits with the shareholders of the company. For each share owned, a declared amount of money is distributed. Thus, if a person owns 100 shares and the cash dividend is $0.50 per share, the person will be issued a check for 50 dollars. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dividend).
Ekonomika  Referatai   (28,85 kB)
David Ricardo
2009-12-29
The brilliant British economist David Ricardo was one the most important figures in the development of economic theory. He articulated and rigorously formulated the "Classical" system of political economy. The legacy of Ricardo dominated economic thinking throughout the 19th Century. David Ricardo's family was descended from Iberian Jews who had fled to Holland during a wave of persecutions in the early 18th Century. His father, a stockbroker, emigrated to England shortly before Ricardo's birth in 1772. David Ricardo was his third son (out of seventeen!). At the age of fourteen, after a brief schooling in Holland, Ricardo's father employed him full-time at the London Stock Exchange, where he quickly acquired a knack for the trade. At 21, Ricardo broke with his family and his orthodox Jewish faith when he decided to marry a Quaker. However, with the assistance of acquaintances and on the strength of his already considerable reputation in the City of London, Ricardo managed to set up his own business as a dealer in government securities. He became immensely rich in a very short while. In 1814, at the age of 41, finding himself "sufficiently rich to satisfy all my desires and the reasonable desires of all those about me" (Letter to Mill, 1815), Ricardo retired from city business, bought the estate of Gatcomb Park and set himself up as a country gentleman. Despite his own considerable practical experience, his writings are severely abstract and frequently difficult. His chief emphasis was on the principles of diminishing returns in connection with the rent of land, which he believed also regulated the profits of capital. He attempted to deduce a theory of value from the application of labour, but found it difficult to separate the effects of changes in distribution from changes in technology. The questions thus raised about the labour theory of value were taken up by Marx and the so-called `Ricardian socialists' as a theoretical basis for criticism of established institutions. Ricardo's law of rent was probably his most notable and influential discovery. It was based on the observation that the differing fertility of land yielded unequal profits to the capital and labour applied to it. Differential rent is the result of this variation in the fertility of land. This principle was also noted at much the same time by Malthus, West, Anderson, and others. His other great contribution, the law of comparative cost, or comparative advantage, demonstrated the benefits of international specialisation of the commodity composition of international trade. This was at the root of the free trade argument which set Britain firmly on the course of exporting manufactures and importing foodstuffs. His success in attaching other economists, particularly James Mill and McCulloch, to his views largely accounted for the remarkable dominance of his ideas long after his own lifetime. Though much of this was eventually rejected, his abstract method and much of the theoretical content of his work became the framework for economic science at least until the 1870s. Egged on by his good friend James Mill, Ricardo got himself elected into the British parliament in 1819 as an independent representing a borough in Ireland, which he served up to his death in 1823. In parliament, he was primarily interested in the currency and commercial questions of the day, such as the repayment of public debt, capital taxation and the repeal of the Corn Laws. (cf. Thomas Moore's poems on Cash, Corn and Catholics)
Ekonomika  Referatai   (49,92 kB)
Wildlife management
2009-12-22
Interest in wildlife was an important part of the conservation movement of the late 19th century. Although wildlife did not have the economic importance of other resources such as timber, forage, and water, nor did it capture the public's attention as much as efforts to preserve scenic waterfalls or geysers, wildlife (especially big game) was perhaps the most endangered resource of that period. Buffalo, deer, and elk were almost eliminated from the West and predator species (wolf, bear, and cougars) were becoming rare. Upperclass reformers such as George Bird Grinnell, founder of Field and Stream magazine, and Theodore Roosevelt, a co-founder of the Boone and Crockett Club, were alarmed by the fate of big game in the Western States. When Roosevelt sponsored Gifford Pinchot for membership in the club, Pinchot was able to expand the notion of forest conservation to embrace the cause of big game protection. Yet, when the newly created Federal forest reserves were transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture in 1905, Gifford Pinchot as head of the Forest Services apparently did not see much of a relationship between national forest administration and wildlife. His emphasis on timber resources set the future tone of the agency. Moreover, the agency had to be cautious about regulating game animals and birds on the forest reserves (which were renamed national forests in 1907), for fear of trampling States' rights and giving its western critics reason to disband the reserves. The policy of the Forest Service was to "cooperate with the game wardens of the State or Territory in which they serve ..." according to the first book of directives issued by the agency in 1905 (The Use Book). Two years later, a provision in the Agricultural Appropriations Act of 1907 made it a law that "hereafter officials of the Forest Service shall, in all ways that are practicable, aid in the enforcement of the laws of the States or Territories with regard to ... the protection of fish and game."
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (107,11 kB)
Violence on TV
2009-12-22
To tell the truth, I am strongly against violence on TV. Usually I ask myself why some people have tendencies toward violence. What factors cause those violent and aggressive behaviors? Among broad other reasons such as mental health, personal characteristics and economic status there is the violence in media that gives people those nonsensical ideas and inspiration. The truth about television violence and children had been shown. Studies have been carried out and all the results point to the same conclusion: violence on television affects the behavior of children who are watching it. In fact, violence on TV causes children to be increasingly violent and the effects could be life-long. Children create violence to keep themselves satisfied. The reason children are so drawn to the violence on TV today is that the characters on TV make it look fun, so children find it fun to imitate. It has been found that kids who watch more television are more likely to solve their problems with violence rather than kids who don’t. Talking about kind of scenes children shouldn’t see at all, I must say that children shouldn’t be allowed to watch killing and all others which are bloody. As I know the most violence contains television programs about daily events. I must admit that the most violence is on Lithuanian programs such as Farai, Komanda. By the way, there is saying: the more bloody film it is, the more popular it becomes. So, I think all most popular TV shows and movies are fulfilled of blood and violence as well. If somebody does not like to watch violence on TV, that doesn’t let him or her to change others opinion. We can’t forget that these films are for adults not children. It is the adults who are able to see the difference between what is real and what is false. Actually, somebody likes those action movies and TV shows that have death counts close to hundreds. They love the feeling of leaving cinema in awe of what they just saw. That shows that we have no right to take shows and movies off the TV. But I strongly believe that the time of that must be controlled. It should be shown, when it is late and all children are sleeping. To make less violence on TV can only punishment. And the best should be a huge sum of money. To sum it up, fixing this problem isn’t easy, it will never go away, and in time it will get worse. About the only way to correct this ever-growing problem is to stop it where it starts: at home. Parents should take up the responsibility to be more into what their kids watch.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,49 kB)
Vilnius
2009-12-22
The first documentary reference to Vilnius dates back to 1323, when the Great Duke Gediminas proclaimed Vilnius the capital of Lithuanian state and invited foreign artists, scientists, builders to come live and work here. Vilnius has got a very beautiful Old Town, which reminds us the history of our native country. In the centre of the Old Town, on the Castle hill, stands the Gediminas Tower, a part of an old castle built 6 centuries ago. There is a square in slope of the Castle Hill. It's called the Cathedral square, because there is a cathedral in the centre of it. This cathedral, reconstructed in the end of the 18th century by the famous Lithuanian architect Stuoka-Gucevichius, is the most important catholic church in Lithuania. Vilnius is a mixture of the main architectural styles: Baroque, Classicism, Renaissance and Gothic. The church of St. Anna is considered to be a Gothic masterpiece, the Gediminas castle is a representative of Gothic style too. Well-known representative of Baroque is the church of St. Peter and Paul. The Italian sculptors worked on the masterpieces of art of this church. There are thousands of sculptures in it. Classicism dominates in some Cathedral, University buildings. Vilnius University is very old, it was established in 1579. There are many new districts built in the latest 30 years: Lazdynai, Baltupiai (shame of Vilnius), Karolinishkes, Fabijonishkes, Justinishkes. I don't admire such "modern" houses of blocks, factories, standing in the centre of the city. Despite this, I don't want to criticise Vilnius more. It's my native town and I couldn't live in any other town.
Vegetarianism
2009-12-22
A vegetarian is one who eats no animal products. Some people call themselves vegetarians but still eat fish and chicken; be assured those two species still belong to the animal kingdom—they have flesh and blood just like a cow or a human or a deer. Also he or she uses a minimum of leather, only where necessary. There are three issues to consider in regard to vegetarianism. They are: nutritional, spiritual, and moral. Nutritionally, the alkaline-based digestive system of humans will not properly break down substantial acid substances, the greatest of which is meat. (Also, the amount of cholesterol in meat is unhealthy.) Colon cancer is rampant! This is caused by the slow evacuation and the putrefaction in the colon of the remains of meat. Lifelong vegetarians never suffer from such an illness. The type and amount of oils in meat are unhealthy and they turn rancid upon the death of the animal. The flesh and blood also began to putrefy as soon as the animal is killed. Many meat eaters believe that meat is the sole source of protein. However, the quality of this protein is so poor that little of it can ever be utilized by humans because it is incomplete and lacks the correct combination of amino acids, the building blocks of protein. Studies show that the average American gets five times the amount of protein needed. It is a common medical fact that excess protein is dangerous, the prime danger being that uric acid (the waste product produced in the process of digesting protein) attacks the kidneys, breaking down the kidney cells called nephrons. This condition is called nephritis; the prime cause of it is overburdening the kidneys. More usable protein is found in one tablespoon of tofu or soybeans than the average serving of meat!
Start of ISM The predecessor of ISM was the Business Training Centre, a well-known executive training institution in Lithuania. It was founded in 1995 by the Norwegian School of Management BI and Kaunas University of Technology. ISM University of Management and Economics was established in Kaunas in 1999 as the first privately owned institution of management education in Lithuania. The main founders of ISM are the Norwegian School of Management BI, the largest business school in Europe, and the Innovation Norway (former Norwegian Industrial and Regional Development Fund). ISM today • Campuses in Vilnius and Kaunas • More than 1700 students • International Quality Accreditation (IQA) • European Credit Transfer Label (ECTS label) • ISM Bachelor and Master Business and Management programmes have been accredited and awarded the highest assessment by the team of international experts invited by the Centre for Quality Assessment in Higher Education. • All levels of university studies: doctoral, executive education and training, graduate, undergraduate • 2 research departments – Department of Intellectual Capital and Business Competence and Department of Organisational Economics and Strategy • Professors from across the globe • Exchange programmes with universities in more than 20 different countries KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE Kaunas University of Medicine is the largest institution of medical education and training in Lithuania. Its history goes back to 1919, when by the decision of Kaunas Medical Society the Higher Medical Courses had been established, which developed into the Faculty of Medicine of Kaunas University in 1922. Later on in 1950 the of Medicine was transformed into Kaunas Medical Institute, which in turn was reorganized into Kaunas Medical Academy in 1989. In 1998 Kaunas Medical Academy by the decision of Lithuanian Parliament was renamed in to Kaunas University of Medicine. Kaunas University of Medicine is an autonomous university type medical institution finansed by the State. The governing body of the Academy is the Academic Council, the executive function being assigned to the Rectorate. Kaunas University of Medicine has 5 faculties: the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Stomatology, the Faculty of Pharmacy, the Faculty of Nursing, the Faculty of Public Health.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (295,9 kB)
Tiger
2009-12-22
Tiger Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family and one of four "big cats" in the Panthera genus. They are apex predators and the largest feline species in the world, comparable in size to the biggest fossil felids. The Bengal Tiger is the most common subspecies of tiger, constituting approximately 80% of the entire tiger population, and is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and India. An endangered species, the majority of the world's tigers now live in captivity. Physical traits Tigers are the heaviest cats found in the wild. Although different subspecies of tiger have different characteristics, in general male tigers weigh between 200 and 320 kilograms (440 and 700 lb) and females between 120 and 181 kg (265 and 400 lb). On average, males are between 2.6 and 3.3 metres (8 ft 6 in to 10 ft 8 in) in length, and females are between 2.3 and 2.75 metres (7 ft 6 in and 9 ft) in length. Of the living subspecies, Sumatran tigers are the smallest, and Amur (or Siberian) tigers are the largest. Most tigers have orange coats, a fair (whitish) medial and ventral area and stripes that vary from brown or hay to pure black. The form and density of stripes differs between subspecies, but most tigers have in excess of 100 stripes. The now-extinct Javan tiger may have had far more than this. The pattern of stripes is unique to each animal, and thus could potentially be used to identify individuals, much in the same way as fingerprints are used to identify people. This is not, however, a preferred method of identification, due to the difficulty of recording the stripe pattern of a wild tiger. It seems likely that the function of stripes is camouflage, serving to hide these animals from their prey. The stripe pattern is found on a tiger's skin and if shaved, its distinctive camouflage pattern would be preserved. Like most cats, tigers are believed to have some degree of colour vision. There is a well-known mutation that produces the white tiger, an animal which is rare in the wild, but widely bred in zoos due to its popularity. The white tiger is not a separate sub-species, but only a colour variation. There are also unconfirmed reports of a "blue" or slate-coloured tiger, and largely or totally black tigers, and these are assumed, if real, to be intermittent mutations rather than distinct species. Similar to the lion, the tiger has the ability to roar. Tigers' extremely strong jaws and sharp teeth make them superb predators. Most tigers live in forests or grasslands, for which their camouflage is ideally suited, and where it is easy to hunt prey that are faster or more agile. Among the big cats, only the tiger and jaguar are strong swimmers; tigers are often found bathing in ponds, lakes, and rivers and are known to kill while swimming. Tigers hunt alone and eat primarily medium to large sized herbivores such as sambar deer, but they also have the capability to eat much smaller prey such as birds, and other such things, wild pigs, young gaur, water buffalo and domestic cattle. They also kill such formidable predators as sloth bear, dogs, leopards, crocodiles and pythons as prey, and occasionally prey on creatures as small as langurs, peacocks and hares. Old and injured tigers have been known to attack humans or domestic cattle and are then termed as man-eaters or cattle-lifters which often leads to them being captured, shot or poisoned. Adult elephants are too dangerous to tigers to serve as common prey, but conflicts between elephants and tigers do sometimes take place. Tigers often ambush their prey as other cats do, overpowering their prey from any angle, using their body size and strength to knock prey off balance. Even with great masses, Tigers can reach speeds of about 60 km/h (37 mph). Once prone, the tiger bites the back of the neck, often breaking the prey's spinal cord, piercing the windpipe, or severing the jugular vein or carotid artery. Tigers prefer to bite the throats of large prey. After biting, the tiger then uses its muscled forelimbs to hold onto the prey, bringing it to the ground. The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its prey dies. The Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal have had a higher incidence of man-eaters, where some healthy tigers have been known to hunt humans as prey. In the wild, tigers can leap as high as 5 m (16 ft) and as far as 9-10 m (30-33 ft), making them one of the highest-jumping mammals (just slightly behind cougars in jumping ability). They have been reported to carry domestic livestock weighing 50 kg (110 lb) while easily jumping over fences 2 m (6 ft 6 in) high. Their heavily muscled forelimbs are used to hold tightly onto the prey and to avoid being dislodged, especially by large prey such as gaurs. Gaurs and water buffalo weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighing about a sixth as much. A single blow from a tiger's paw can kill a full-grown wolf or human, or can heavily injure a 150 kg (330 lb) Sambar deer.
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The Son of the Wolf
2009-12-22
'I never saw a dog with a highfalutin' name that ever was worth a rap,' he said, as he concluded his task and shoved her aside. 'They just fade away and die under the responsibility. Did ye ever see one go wrong with a sensible name like Cassiar, Siwash, or Husky? No, sir! Take a look at Shookum here, he's Snap! The lean brute flashed up, the white teeth just missing Mason's throat. 'Ye will, will ye?' A shrewd clout behind the ear with the butt of the dog whip stretched the animal in the snow, quivering softly, a yellow slaver dripping from its fangs. 'As I was saying, just look at Shookum here- he's got the spirit. Bet ye he eats Carmen before the week's out.' 'I'll bank another proposition against that,' replied Malemute Kid, reversing the frozen bread placed before the fire to thaw. 'We'll eat Shookum before the trip is over. What d'ye say, Ruth?' The Indian woman settled the coffee with a piece of ice, glanced from Malemute Kid to her husband, then at the dogs, but vouchsafed no reply. It was such a palpable truism that none was necessary. Two hundred miles of unbroken trail in prospect, with a scant six days' grub for themselves and none for the dogs, could admit no other alternative. The two men and the woman grouped about the fire and began their meager meal. The dogs lay in their harnesses for it was a midday halt, and watched each mouthful enviously. 'No more lunches after today,' said Malemute Kid. 'And we've got to keep a close eye on the dogs- they're getting vicious. They'd just as soon pull a fellow down as not, if they get a chance.' 'And I was president of an Epworth once, and taught in the Sunday school.' Having irrelevantly delivered himself of this, Mason fell into a dreamy contemplation of his steaming moccasins, but was aroused by Ruth filling his cup. 'Thank God, we've got slathers of tea! I've seen it growing, down in Tennessee. What wouldn't I give for a hot corn pone just now! Never mind, Ruth; you won't starve much longer, nor wear moccasins either.' The woman threw off her gloom at this, and in her eyes welled up a great love for her white lord- the first white man she had ever seen- the first man whom she had known to treat a woman as something better than a mere animal or beast of burden. 'Yes, Ruth,' continued her husband, having recourse to the macaronic jargon in which it was alone possible for them to understand each other; 'wait till we clean up and pull for the Outside. We'll take the White Man's canoe and go to the Salt Water. Yes, bad water, rough water- great mountains dance up and down all the time. And so big, so far, so far away- you travel ten sleep, twenty sleep, forty sleep'- he graphically enumerated the days on his fingers- 'all the time water, bad water. Then you come to great village, plenty people, just the same mosquitoes next summer. Wigwams oh, so high- ten, twenty pines. Hi-yu skookum!'
The ground is covered with fresh green grass and the first spring flowers .The trees are covered with new leaves and blossoms. The air is fresh and sun shines brightly. Spring's months are March, April and May. Summer months are June, July and August. The weather is usually fine in summer. It is much warmer than in spring. The trees are green and the gardens are full of flowers. Everybody enjoys summer. A lot of people have their holidays in summer. They can go swimming and boating , they can lie in the sun and get sunburnt , they can gather berries and mushrooms. Autumn months are September, October and November. The days become shorter and the nights become longer. The weather often changes, and it gets colder and colder. The sky is often grey and cloudy, often rains. Autumn is harvesting time, the time when grain, fruit and vegetables become ripe. Winter months are December, January and February. Sometimes it is very cold (30 degrees or more below zero). It often snows. Winter is a good time for sport. Little children are fond of playing snowballs and making snowmen, older ones go in for skating and skiing.
The Romans
2009-12-22
The Romans were the people from a city called Rome in what is now Italy. Rome was the greatest city of its time. At one time it had nearly one million people living there. About 1,800 years ago Rome was the centre of a big empire. For a long time the Romans believed in many different gods and goddesses.For example like Saturn, Minerva, Mars, Venus, Ceres and so on. They thought they were all part of a family and people told stories or myths about them. Each gods or goddess looked after different people or things. The Romans traded goods throughout their Empire. By importing goods from other countries they raised their standard of living and were able to have many luxuries. They used their network of roads and also waterways to transport goods from one country to another. The Romans imported silver from Great Britain, silk from China, cotton from Egypt and so on. Without trades and businesses, the Romans were lovers of entertainment. People went to one of the big theatres in Rome to watch plays. They went to the Hippodrome to see the chariot racing, too. The Colosseum in Rome could seat up to 50,000 people and was the largest amphitheatre in the Empire. It was here that people gathered to see the fights between gladiators, slaves, prisoners and wild animals like lions. Roman clothes were made of wool, spun into cloth by the women of the family. Later on the richer people had slaves to do this work for them. If you could afford to buy clothes, you could buy linen, cotton or silk, which was brought to Rome from other parts of the Empire. Washing clothes was difficult because the Romans did not have washing machines or soap powder. The Romans did not eat huge meals. Their main food was pottage. Pottage is a kind of thick stew made from wheat, millet or corn. Sometimes they would add cooked meat, offal or a sauce made out of wine. Food for the common people consisted of wheat or barley, olive oil.
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The Final Problem
2009-12-22
It was my intention to have stopped there, and to have said nothing of that event which has created a void in my life which the lapse of two years has done little to fill. My hand has been forced, however, by the recent letters in which Colonel James Moriarty defends the memory of his brother, and I have no choice but to lay the facts before the public exactly as they occurred. I alone know the absolute truth of the matter, and I am satisfied that the time has come when no good purpose is to be served by its suppression. As far as I know, there have been only three accounts in the public press: that in the Journal de Geneve on May 6th, 1891, the Reuter’s dispatch in the English papers on May 7th, and finally the recent letters to which I have alluded. Of these the first and second were extremely condensed, while the last is, as I shall now show, an absolute perversion of the facts. It lies with me to tell for the first time what really took place between Professor Moriarty and Mr. Sherlock Holmes. It may be remembered that after my marriage, and my subsequent start in private practice, the very intimate relations which had existed between Holmes and myself became to some extent modified. He still came to me from time to time when he desired a companion in his investigations, but these occasions grew more and more seldom, until I find that in the year 1890 there were only three cases of which I retain any record. During the winter of that year and the early spring of 1891, I saw in the papers that he had been engaged by the French government upon a matter of supreme importance, and I received two notes from Holmes, dated from Narbonne and from Nimes, from which I gathered that his stay in France was likely to be a long one. It was with some surprise, therefore, that I saw him walk into my consulting-room upon the evening of April 24th. It struck me that he was looking even paler and thinner than usual.
The Eiffel tower
2009-12-22
The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. It is located at geographic coordinates 48°51′29″N, 2°17′40″E. The tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889, and opened on 6 May. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. The risk of accident was great, for unlike modern skyscrapers the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. Yet because Eiffel took good care of his workers with movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died, during the installation of Otis Elevator's lifts. The tower was met with resistance from the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore (Novelist Guy de Maupassant ate at a restaurant at the tower regularly, because it was the one place in Paris he was sure he wouldn't see it). Today, it is widely considered to be one of the most striking pieces of structural art in the world. Originally, Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years(when ownership of it would revert to the City of Paris, who had originally planned to tear it down; part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it could be easily torn down), more than recouping his expenses, but as it later proved valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit. The military used it to dispatch Parisian taxis to the front line of the Marne, and it therefore became a victory statue of that battle. It was also used to catch the infamous "Mata Hari," and after this, its demolition became unthinkable to the French population.
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"What do you say, dear?" said my wife, looking across at me. "Will you go?" "I really don't know what to say. I have a fairly long list at present." "Oh, Anstruther would do your work for you. You have been looking a little pale lately. I think that the change would do you good, and you are always so interested in Mr. Sherlock Holmes's cases." "I should be ungrateful if I were not, seeing what I gained through one of them," I answered. "But if I am to go, I must pack at once, for I have only half an hour." My experience of camp life in Afghanistan had at least had the effect of making me a prompt and ready traveller. My wants were few and simple, so that in less than the time stated I was in a cab with my valise, rattling away to Paddington Station. Sherlock Holmes was pacing up and down the platform, his tall, gaunt figure made even gaunter and taller by his long gray travelling-cloak and close fitting cloth cap. "It is really very good of you to come, Watson," said he. "It makes a considerable difference to me, having someone with me on whom I can thoroughly rely. Local aid is always either worthless or else biassed. If you will keep the two corner seats I shall get the tickets." We had the carriage to ourselves save for an immense litter of papers which Holmes had brought with him. Among these he rummaged and read, with intervals of note-taking and of meditation, until we were past Reading. Then he suddenly rolled them all into a gigantic ball and tossed them up onto the rack. "Have you heard anything of the case?" he asked. "Not a word. I have not seen a paper for some days." "The London press has not had very full accounts. I have just been looking through all the recent papers in order to master the particulars. It seems, from what I gather, to be one of those simple cases which are so extremely difficult." "That sounds a little paradoxical." "But it is profoundly true. Singularity is almost invariably a clue. The more featureless and commonplace a crime is, the more difficult it is to bring it home. In this case, however, they have established a very serious case against the son of the murdered man." "It is a murder, then?" "Well, it is conjectured to be so. I shall take nothing for granted until I have the opportunity of looking personally into it. I will explain the state of things to you, as far as I have been able to understand it, in a very few words. "Boscombe Valley is a country district not very far from Ross, in Herefordshire. The largest landed proprietor in that part is a Mr. John Turner, who made his money in Australia and returned some years ago to the old country. One of the farms which he held, that of Hatherley, was let to Mr. Charles McCarthy, who was also an ex-Australian. The men had known each other in the colonies, so that it was not unnatural that when they came to settle down they should do so as near each other as possible. Turner was apparently the richer man, so McCarthy became his tenant but still remained, it seems, upon terms of perfect equality, as they were frequently together. McCarthy had one son, a lad of eighteen, and Turner had an only daughter of the same age, but neither of them had wives living. They appear to have avoided the society of the neighbouring English families and to have led retired lives, though both the McCarthys were fond of sport and were frequently seen at the race-meetings of the neighbourhood. McCarthy kept two servants-a man and a girl. Turner had a considerable household, some half-dozen at the least. That is as much as I have been able to gather about the families. Now for the facts. "On June 3rd, that is, on Monday last McCarthy left his house at Hatherley about three in the afternoon and walked down to the Boscombe Pool, which is a small lake formed by the spreading out of the stream which runs down the Boscombe Valley. He had been out with his serving-man in the morning at Ross, and he had told the man that he must hurry, as he had an appointment of importance to keep at three. From that appointment he never came back alive. "From Hatherley Farmhouse to the Boscombe Pool is a quarter of a mile, and two people saw him as he passed over this ground. One was an old woman, whose name is not mentioned, and the other was William Crowder, a game-keeper in the employ of Mr. Turner. Both these witnesses depose that Mr. McCarthy was walking alone. The game-keeper adds that within a few minutes of his seeing Mr. McCarthy pass he had seen his son, Mr. James McCarthy, going the same way with a gun under his arm. To the best of his belief, the father was actually in sight at the time, and the son was following him. He thought no more of the matter until he heard in the evening of the tragedy that had occurred. "The two McCarthys were seen after the time when William Crowder, the game-keeper, lost sight of them. The Boscombe Pool is thickly wooded round, with just a fringe of grass and of reeds round the edge. A girl of fourteen, Patience Moran, who is the daughter of the lodge-keeper of the Boscombe Valley estate, was in one of the woods picking flowers. She states that while she was there she saw, at the border of the wood and close by the lake, Mr. McCarthy and his son, and that they appeared to be having a violent quarrel. She heard Mr. McCarthy the elder using very strong language to his son, and she saw the latter raise up his hand as if to strike his father. She was so frightened by their violence that she ran away and told her mother when she reached home that she had left the two McCarthys quarrelling near Boscombe Pool, and that she was afraid that they were going to fight. She had hardly said the words when young Mr. McCarthy came running up to the lodge to say that he had found his father dead in the wood, and to ask for the help of the lodge-keeper. He was much excited, without either his gun or his hat, and his right hand and sleeve were observed to be stained with fresh blood. On following him they found the dead body stretched out upon the grass beside the pool. The head had been beaten in by repeated blows of some heavy and blunt weapon. The injuries were such as might very well have been inflicted by the butt-end of his son's gun, which was found lying on the grass within a few paces of the body. Under these circumstances the young man was instantly arrested, and a verdict of 'wilful murder' having been returned at the inquest on Tuesday, he was on Wednesday brought before the magistrates at Ross, who have referred the case to the next Assizes. Those are the main facts of the case as they came out before the coroner and the police-court." "I could hardly imagine a more damning case," I remarked. "If ever circumstantial evidence pointed to a criminal it does so here."
I am bound to say, occasionally to embellish, you have given prominence not so much to the many causes celebres and sensational trials in which I have figured but rather to those incidents which may have been trivial in themselves, but which have given room for those faculties of deduction and of logical synthesis which I have made my special province." "And yet," said I, smiling, "I cannot quite hold myself absolved from the charge of sensationalism which has been urged against my records." "You have erred, perhaps," he observed, taking up a glowing cinder with the tongs and lighting with it the long cherry-wood pipe which was wont to replace his clay when he was in a disputatious rather than a meditative mood -" you have erred perhaps in attempting to put colour and life into each of your statements instead of confining yourself to the task of placing upon record that severe reasoning from cause to effect which is really the only notable feature about the thing." "It seems to me that I have done you full justice in the matter," I remarked with some coldness, for I was repelled by the egotism which I had more than once observed to be a strong factor in my friend’s singular character. "No, it is not selfishness or conceit," said he, answering, as was his wont, my thoughts rather than my words. "If I claim full justice for my art, it is because it is an impersonal thing - a thing beyond myself. Crime is common. Logic is rare. Therefore it is upon the logic rather than upon the crime that you should dwell. You have degraded what should have been a course of lectures into a series of tales." It was a cold morning of the early spring, and we sat after breakfast on either side of a cheery fire in the old room at Baker Street. A thick fog rolled down between the lines of dun-coloured houses, and the opposing windows loomed like dark, shapeless blurs through the heavy yellow wreaths. Our gas was lit and shone on the white cloth and glimmer of china and metal, for the table had not been cleared yet. Sherlock Holmes had been silent all the morning, dipping continuously into the advertisement columns of a succession of papers until at last, having apparently given up his search, he had emerged in no very sweet temper to lecture me upon my literary shortcomings. "At the same time," he remarked after a pause, during which he had sat puffing at his long pipe and gazing down into the fire, "you can hardly be open to a charge of sensationalism, for out of these cases which you have been so kind as to interest yourself in, a fair proportion do not treat of crime, in its legal sense, at all. The small matter in which I endeavoured to help the King of Bohemia, the singular experience of Miss Mary Sutherland, the problem connected with the man with the twisted lip, and the incident of the noble bachelor, were all matters which are outside the pale of the law. But in avoiding the sensational, I fear that you may have bordered on the trivial."
. It is, however, unfortunately impossible entirely to separate the sensational from the criminal, and a chronicler is left in the dilemma that he must either sacrifice details which are essential to his statement and so give a false impression of the problem, or he must use matter which chance, and not choice, has provided him with. With this short preface I shall turn to my notes of what proved to be a strange, though a peculiarly terrible, chain of events. It was a blazing hot day in August. Baker Street was like an oven, and the glare of the sunlight upon the yellow brickwork of the house across the road was painful to the eye. It was hard to believe that these were the same walls which loomed so gloomily through the fogs of winter. Our blinds were half-drawn, and Holmes lay curled upon the sofa, reading and re-reading a letter which he had received by the morning post. For myself, my term of service in India had trained me to stand heat better than cold, and a thermometer at ninety was no hardship. But the morning paper was uninteresting. Parliament had risen. Everybody was out of town, and I yearned for the glades of the New Forest or the shingle of Southsea. A depleted bank account had caused me to postpone my holiday, and as to my companion, neither the country nor the sea presented the slightest attraction to him. He loved to lie in the very centre of five millions of people, with his filaments stretching out and running through them, responsive to every little rumour or suspicion of unsolved crime. Appreciation of nature found no place among his many gifts, and his only change was when he turned his mind from the evil-doer of the town to track down his brother of the country. Finding that Holmes was too absorbed for conversation I had tossed aside the barren paper, and leaning back in my chair I fell into a brown study. Suddenly my companion's voice broke in upon my thoughts: "You are right, Watson," said he. "It does seem a most preposterous way of settling a dispute." "Most preposterous!" I exclaimed, and then suddenly realizing how he had echoed the inmost thought of my soul, I sat up in my chair and stared at him in blank amazement. "What is this, Holmes?" I cried. "This is beyond anything which I could have imagined." He laughed heartily at my perplexity. "You remember," said he, "that some little time ago when I read you the passage in one of Poe's sketches in which a close reasoner follows the unspoken thoughts of his companion, you were inclined to treat the matter as a mere tour-de-force of the author. On my remarking that I was constantly in the habit of doing the same thing you expressed incredulity."
The second and third had been patiently occupied upon a subject which he had recently made his hobby- the music of the Middle Ages. But when, for the fourth time, after pushing back our chairs from breakfast we saw the greasy, heavy brown swirl still drifting past us and condensing in oily drops upon the window-panes, my comrade's impatient and active nature could endure this drab existence no longer. He paced restlessly about our sitting-room in a fever of suppressed energy, biting his nails, tapping the furniture, and chafing against inaction. "Nothing of interest in the paper, Watson?" he said. I was aware that by anything of interest, Holmes meant anything of criminal interest. There was the news of a revolution, of a possible war, and of an impending change of government; but these did not come within the horizon of my companion. I could see nothing recorded in the shape of crime which was not commonplace and futile. Holmes groaned and resumed his restless meanderings. "The London criminal is certainly a dull fellow," said he in the querulous voice of the sportsman whose game has failed him. "Look out of this window, Watson. See how the figures loom up, are dimly seen, and then blend once more into the cloud-bank. The thief or the murderer could roam London on such a day as the tiger does the jungle, unseen until he pounces, and then evident only to his victim." "There have," said I, "been numerous petty thefts." Holmes snorted his contempt. "This great and sombre stage is set for something more worthy than that," said he. "It is fortunate for this community that I am not a criminal." "It is, indeed!" said I heartily. "Suppose that I were Brooks or Woodhouse, or any of the fifty men who have good reason for taking my life, how long could I survive against my own pursuit? A summons, a bogus appointment, and all would be over. It is well they don't have days of fog in the Latin countries- the countries of assassination. By Jove! here comes something at last to break our dead monotony." It was the maid with a telegram. Holmes tore it open and burst out laughing. "Well, well! What next?" said he. "Brother Mycroft is coming round." "Why not?" I asked. "Why not? It is as if you met a tram-car coming down a country lane. Mycroft has his rails and he runs on them. His Pall Mall lodgings, the Diogenes Club, Whitehall- that is his cycle. Once, and only once, he has been here. What upheaval can possibly have derailed him?" "Does he not explain?" Holmes handed me his brother's telegram. - Must see you over Cadogan West. Coming at once. MYCROFT. - "Cadogan West? I have heard the name." "It recalls nothing to my mind. But that Mycroft should break out in this erratic fashion! A planet might as well leave its orbit. By the way, do you know what Mycroft is?"
Beside the couch was a wooden chair, and on the angle of the back hung a very seedy and disreputable hard-felt bat, much the worse for wear and cracked in several places. A lens and a forceps lying upon the seat of the chair suggested that the hat had been suspended in this manner for the purpose of examination. "You are engaged," said I; "perhaps I interrupt you." "Not at all. I am glad to have a friend with whom I can discuss my results. The matter is a perfectly trivial one"- he jerked his thumb in the direction of the old hat- "but there are points in connection with it which are not entirely devoid of interest and even of instruction." I seated myself in his armchair and warmed my hands before his crackling fire, for a sharp frost had set in, and the windows were thick with the ice crystals. "I suppose," I remarked, "that, homely as it looks, this thing has some deadly story linked on to it-that it is the clue which will guide you in the solution of some mystery and the punishment of some crime." "No, no. No crime," said Sherlock Holmes, laughing. "Only one of those whimsical little incidents which will happen when you have four million human beings all jostling each other within the space of a few square miles. Amid the action and reaction of so dense a swarm of humanity, every possible combination of events may be expected to take place, and many a little problem will be presented which may be striking and bizarre without being criminal. We have already had experience of such." "So much so," I remarked, "that of the last six cases which I have added to my notes, three have been entirely free of any legal crime." "Precisely. You allude to my attempt to recover the Irene Adler papers, to the singular case of Miss Mary Sutherland, and to the adventure of the man with the twisted lip. Well, I have no doubt that this small matter will fall into the same innocent category. You know Peterson, the commissionaire?"
"Try it yourself, Holmes!" he has retorted, and I am compelled to admit that, having taken my pen in my hand, I do begin to realize that the matter must be presented in such a way as may interest the reader. The following case can hardly fail to do so, as it is among the strangest happenings in my collection, though it chanced that Watson had no note of it in his collection. Speaking of my old friend and biographer, I would take this opportunity to remark that if I burden myself with a companion in my various little inquiries it is not done out of sentiment or caprice, but it is that Watson has some remarkable characteristics of his own to which in his modesty he has given small attention amid his exaggerated estimates of my own performances. A confederate who foresees your conclusions and course of action is always dangerous, but one to whom each development comes as a perpetual surprise, and to whom the future is always a closed book, is indeed an ideal helpmate. I find from my notebook that it was in January, 1903, just after the conclusion of the Boer War, that I had my visit from Mr. James M. Dodd, a big, fresh, sunburned, upstanding Briton. The good Watson had at that time deserted me for a wife, the only selfish action which I can recall in our association. I was alone. It is my habit to sit with my back to the window and to place my visitors in the opposite chair, where the light falls full upon them. Mr. James M. Dodd seemed somewhat at a loss how to begin the interview. I did not attempt to help him, for his silence gave me more time for observation. I have found it wise to impress clients with a sense of power, and so I gave him some of my conclusions.
So unworldly was he- or so capricious- that he frequently refused his help to the powerful and wealthy where the problem made no appeal to his sympathies, while he would devote weeks of most intense application to the affairs of some humble client whose case presented those strange and dramatic qualities which appealed to his imagination and challenged his ingenuity. In this memorable year '95, a curious and incongruous succession of cases had engaged his attention, ranging from his famous investigation of the sudden death of Cardinal Tosca- an inquiry which was carried out by him at the express desire of His Holiness the Pope- down to his arrest of Wilson, the notorious canary-trainer, which removed a plague-spot from the East End of London. Close on the heels of these two famous cases came the tragedy of Woodman's Lee, and the very obscure circumstances which surrounded the death of Captain Peter Carey. No record of the doings of Mr. Sherlock Holmes would be complete which did not include some account of this very unusual affair. During the first week of July, my friend had been absent so often and so long from our lodgings that I knew he had something on hand. The fact that several rough-looking men called during that time and inquired for Captain Basil made me understand that Holmes was working somewhere under one of the numerous disguises and names with which he concealed his own formidable identity. He had at least five small refuges in different parts of London, in which he was able to change his personality. He said nothing of his business to me, and it was not my habit to force a confidence. The first positive sign which he gave me of the direction which his investigation was taking was an extraordinary one. He had gone out before breakfast, and I had sat down to mine when he strode into the room, his hat upon his head and a huge barbed-headed spear tucked like an umbrella under his arm. "Good gracious, Holmes!" I cried. "You don't mean to say that you have been walking about London with that thing?" "I drove to the butcher's and back." "The butcher's?" "And I return with an excellent appetite. There can be no question, my dear Watson, of the value of exercise before breakfast. But I am prepared to bet that you will not guess the form that my exercise has taken." "I will not attempt it." He chuckled as he poured out the coffee. "If you could have looked into Allardyce's back shop, you would have seen a dead pig swung from a hook in the ceiling, and a gentleman in his shirt sleeves furiously stabbing at it with this weapon. I was that energetic person, and I have satisfied myself that by no exertion of my strength can I transfix the pig with a single blow. Perhaps you would care to try?" "Not for worlds. But why were you doing this?" "Because it seemed to me to have an indirect bearing upon the mystery of Woodman's Lee. Ah, Hopkins, I got your wire last night, and I have been expecting you. Come and join us." Our visitor was an exceedingly alert man, thirty years of age, dressed in a quiet tweed suit, but retaining the erect bearing of one who was accustomed to official uniform. I recognized him at once as Stanley Hopkins, a young police inspector, for whose future Holmes had high hopes, while he in turn professed the admiration and respect of a pupil for the scientific methods of the famous amateur. Hopkins's brow was clouded, and he sat down with an air of deep dejection.
Tale of Two Cities
2009-12-22
There were a king with a large jaw and a queen with a plain face, on the throne of England; there were a king with a large jaw and a queen with a fair face, on the throne of France. In both countries it was clearer than crystal to the lords of the State preserves of loaves and fishes, that things in general were settled for ever. It was the year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five. Spiritual revelations were conceded to England at that favoured period, as at this. Mrs. Southcott had recently attained her five-and-twentieth blessed birthday, of whom a prophetic private in the Life Guards had heralded the sublime appearance by announcing that arrangements were made for the swallowing up of London and Westminster. Even the Cock-lane ghost had been laid only a round dozen of years, after rapping out its messages, as the spirits of this very year last past (supernaturally deficient in originality) rapped out theirs. Mere messages in the earthly order of events had lately come to the English Crown and People, from a congress of British subjects in America: which, strange to relate, have proved more important to the human race than any communications yet received through any of the chickens of the Cock-lane brood. France, less favoured on the whole as to matters spiritual than her sister of the shield and trident, rolled with exceeding smoothness down hill, making paper money and spending it. Under the guidance of her Christian pastors, she entertained herself, besides, with such humane achievements as sentencing a youth to have his hands cut off, his tongue torn out with pincers, and his body burned alive, because he had not kneeled down in the rain to do honour to a dirty procession of monks which passed within his view, at a distance of some fifty or sixty yards. It is likely enough that, rooted in the woods of France and Norway, there were growing trees, when that sufferer was put to death, already marked by the Woodman, Fate, to come down and be sawn into boards, to make a certain movable framework with a sack and a knife in it, terrible in history. It is likely enough that in the rough outhouses of some tillers of the heavy lands adjacent to Paris, there were sheltered from the weather that very day, rude carts, bespattered with rustic mire, snuffed about by pigs, and roosted in by poultry, which the Farmer, Death, had already set apart to be his tumbrils of the Revolution. But that Woodman and that Farmer, though they work unceasingly, work silently and no one heard them as they went about with muffled tread: the rather, forasmuch as to entertain any suspicion that they were awake, was to be atheistical and traitorous. In England, there was scarcely an amount of order and protection to justify much national boasting. Daring burglaries by armed men, and highway robberies, took place in the capital itself every night; families were publicly cautioned not to go out of town without removing their furniture to upholsterers' warehouses for security; the highwayman in the dark was a City tradesman in the light, and, being recognised and challenged by his fellow-tradesman whom he stopped in his character of "the Captain," gallantly shot him through the head and rode away; the mail was waylaid by seven robbers, and the guard shot three dead, and then got shot dead himself by the other four, "in consequence of the failure of his ammunition:" after which the mail was robbed in peace; that magnificent potentate, the Lord Mayor of London, was made to stand and deliver on Turnham Green, by one highwayman, who despoiled the illustrious creature in sight of all his retinue; prisoners in London gaols fought battles with their turkeys, and the majesty of the law fired blunderbusses in among them, loaded with rounds of shot and ball; thieves snipped off diamond crosses from the necks of noble lords at Court drawing-rooms; musketeers went into St. Giles's, to search for contraband goods, and the mob fired on the musketeers, and the musketeers fir on the mob, and nobody thought any of these occurrences much out of the common way. In the midst of them, the hangman, ever busy and ever worse than useless, was in constant requisition; now, stringing up long rows of miscellaneous criminals; now, hanging a housebreaker on Saturday who had been taken on Tuesday; now, burning people in the hand at Newgate by the dozen, and now burning pamphlets at the door of Westminster Hall; to-day, taking the life of an atrocious murderer, and to-morrow of a wretched pilferer who had robbed a farmer's boy of sixpence. All these things, and a thousand like them, came to pass in and close upon the dear old year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five. Environed by them, while the Woodman and the Farmer worked unheeded, those two of the large jaws, and those other two of the plain and the fair faces, trod with stir enough, and carried their divine rights with a high hand. Thus did the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five conduct their Greatnesses, and myriads of small creatures- the creatures of this chronicle among the rest- along the roads that lay before them.
Šiauliai
2009-12-22
The City Kissed by the Sun Šiauliai is the City kissed by the Sun. The city stretches in the North of the Lithuania. Our Šiauliai is very interesting and attractive. In Šiauliai is 7 unique and magic Sun Monuments. During all 770 years the city was set 7 times devastated by wars, stormed and Black Death. One of the most important landmarks is renaissance architectural miracle is St. Apostles Peter and Paul‘s Cathedral with the oldest Lithuania‘s Sun Clock on the wall. A few steps further your eyes meets one more celestial sign in the Sundial Square. The Sculptures of the Golden Boy – An Archer – sparkles in the rays of the sun on the top of the Sun Clock. Another a clock is Cock, which signs every midday or early evening, and welcomes you in 16 different languages. In Šiauliai you can visit also 3 art works: a sculpture in Salduve Park, a fresco in the Municipality and Lithuania‘s biggest Stained glass in the Cinema Centre „Saule“. And that is not all. Šiauliai is a proud of the pedestrian with its impressive little architecture and fountains of the „Three Birds“and „Pelicans“. If you are in Saurian, you must see Boulevard. It is third in Europe and the oldest in Lithuania. Giuliani Tourism Information Centre offers attractive excursions with real generals, army meals and entertainment in the airbase in Sonia, where is an old military heritage. Giuliani is the city of unique museums. There are more 20 of them it is only one in Lithuania that has got Cats, Bicycle, Radio and Television Museums. The most spectacular and remarkable museum is Chain Frenkel‘s Villa famous for its architecture not found in the other Baltic countries. Šiauliai differs from others for having two lakes on its territory. Talkša Lake is in the centre of the city. Some distance away there is Rekyva, one of the ten biggest lakes of Lithuania and full water attraction. Also there is a new multifunctional complex of Dainai Park. Everyone willing to get acquainted with our land is welcome. It is worth arriving to the city of the Sun as it offers great experience, which will undoubtedly be beyond your expectations.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,69 kB)
When you get a phone call and other party says ‘’hello’’, often you recognize the voice. Visual impressions, tastes, and smells are also coded in LM. If encoding is proper, in the case we need that information most probably we will be able to use it. 2. Storage. Some information is almost certainly lost from storage, particularly when there is a disruption of the processes that consolidate new memories. The biological locus of consolidation includes the hippocampus and amygdala, brain structures located below the cerebral cortex. Direct evidence of storage loss comes from people who receive electroconvulsive therapy to alleviate severe depresion. In such cases, the patient loses some memory for events that occurred in the months prior to shock, but not for earlier events. These memory losses are unlikely to be due to retrieval failures, because if the shock disrupted retrieval then all memories should be affected,not just the recent ones. 3. Retrieval. Many cases of forgetting from LM result from a loss of access to the information rather than from a loss of the information itself. That is, poor memory often reflects a retrieval failure rather than a storage failure. Trying to retrieve an item from LM is like trying to find a book in a large library. Failure to find the book doesn’t necessarily mean it is not there; you may be looking in the wrong place, or it may simply be misfiled and therefore inaccessible. There are a lot of evidence for retrieval failures. For example, you cannot recall a specific name or date during the exam, and you remember it just after the exam. Another example is ‘’tip-of-the-tongue’’experience in which a particular word lies tantalizingly outside our ability to recall it. We may feel quite tormented until a search of memory finally retrieves the correct word. The better the retrieval cues, the better our memory. Retrieval failures are less likely to happen when the items are organized during encoding and when the context at retrieval is similar to that at encoding. Retrieval processes can also be disrupted by emotional factors. Among the factors that can impair retrieval, the most important is interference. The essence of it: if we associate different items with the same cue, when we retrieve one of the items, the other items may become active and intefere with our recovery of the target. For example, if your friend Dan moves and you finally learn his new phone number, you will find it difficult to retrieve the old number. They interfere.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (5,37 kB)
In 1919 the Russian army was driven from most of Lithuania. A peace treaty was signed, and Russia recognized Lithuania’s sovereignty over Vilnius. But Poland, which had been seeking to recover territory lost during the 18th century, seized the city, after which Kaunas became the capital of Lithuania. From 1920 Lithuania was independent until, as a result of the 1939 pact between the Nazis and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), it was invaded by Soviet forces. During World War II, the USSR lost possession of Lithuania for a short time, but by 1944 it had re-established firm control. Thousands of armed partisan fighters, known as the “Forest Brothers”, continued their fight for national sovereignty, but during Stalin’s regime Lithuania suffered repression and mass deportations. Relations were less confrontational after the 1950s, but Lithuanians never gave up their goal of independence. In 1990 the country was one of the first republics to declare independence from the USSR, which was by then too unstable to force Lithuania back into the Union. Many countries quickly recognized Lithuania’s sovereignty, as did Russia and other former Soviet republics after the break-up of the USSR in 1991. The Lithuanian government, led by members of a political coalition called Saj?dis, embarked on a radical programme to reform the economy and other social structures, but progress was slow and painful. In national elections held in 1992, voters rejected the Saj?dis leadership in favour of former Communists, who had formed a new political party advocating slower reform and closer ties with neighbouring countries, especially Russia. The new government pledged to remain committed to democracy, but slowed privatization and other reform measures to soften the impact of political and social change. In August 1993 all remaining Russian troops withdrew from Lithuania, leaving the people free to concentrate on building a stable and prosperous country. Economy There was rapid industrialization after World War II, and by 1991 industry accounted for 43 per cent of Lithuania’s gross domestic product (GDP), and agriculture for about 28 per cent. The country makes precision machinery and spare parts, processed foods, and light industrial products. The main exports are machinery and parts, meat and dairy products, and consumer goods. Lithuania has very few natural resources, so the country depends heavily on imported raw materials. Imports include oil and gas, chemicals, metals, and equipment. Output declined after independence, because traditional supply arrangements were interrupted, but Lithuania is seeking ties with Western governments and neighbouring countries to increase revenue, foreign investment, and productivity. After independence, the Sajūdis government introduced a radical reform programme involving privatization and price liberalization. As in all former Communist countries that are moving towards a market economy, the initial results were rising inflation and falling living standards. By 1994, however, there were signs of recovery. The national currency is the litas.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (22,56 kB)
Social motives
2009-12-22
Hormonal control At puberty – roughly ages 11 to 14 – hormone changes produce the bodily changes that serve to distinguish males from females. The general idea is that endocrine glands manufacture hormones (chemical messengers), which travel through the bloodstream to target organs. The basic scheme is simple: by way of hormones, the hypothalamus directs the pituitary, which in turn directs the gonads – the ovaries and the testes. The hormones produced by the gonads – estrogen, progesterone, and androgen – are called sex hormones. These hormones are responsible for the body changes at puberty. In girls, estrogen causes the development of breasts, the changes in the distribution of body fat that results in a more feminine form, and the maturation of the female genitals. In boys, testosterone (a kind of androgen) is responsible for the sudden growth of facial, underarm, and pubic hair; it also causes a deepening of the voice, the development of muscles that lead to a more masculine form, and the growth of the external genitals. In other species, sexual arousal is closely tied to variations in hormonal levels; in humans, however, hormones play less of a role. Neural Control In humans, some of the neural mechanisms involved are at the level of spinal cord. But the organ most responsible for the regulation of sexual arousal and behavior is the brain. Early Experiences Experience has little influence on the mating behavior of lower mammals – inexperienced rats will copulate as efficiently as experienced ones – but it is a major determinant of the sexual behavior of higher mammals. Monkeys raised in partial isolation (in separate wire cages, where they can see other monkeys but cannot have contact with them) are usually unable to copulate at maturity. These monkeys have social or affectional problems: even in nonsexual situations, they are unable to relate to other monkeys. Apparently, normal heterosexual behavior in primates depends also on an affectional bond between two members of the opposite sex. Clinical observations of human infants suggest certain parallels. They develop their first feelings of trust and affection through a loving relationship with the mother. This basic trust is a prerequisite for satisfactory interactions with peers. And affectionate relationship with other youngsters of both sexes lay the groundwork for the intimacy required for the intimacy for sexual relationships among adults. Cultural Influences Unlike that of other primates, human sexual behavior is strongly determined by culture. Every society places some restrictions on sexual behavior. Incest (sexual relations within the family), for example, is prohibited by almost all cultures. Sexual activity among children, homosexuality, masturbation, premarital sex – are permitted in varying degrees by different societies. Although western society is becoming increasingly permissive about premarital sex, men and women still differ in their attitudes toward sex (the majority of women need emotional involvement). Homosexuality Someone is considered homosexual if they are sexually attracted primarily to members of the same sex. Sexual interactions with members of the same sex are not uncommon during childhood, but only a small percentage of people become exclusively homosexual as adults. Extensive interviews with homosexuals suggest that they do not differ from heterosexuals with regard to their identifications with parents of the opposite sex, or with regard to the nature of their first sexual encounter. For exclusive homosexuals, there may be a biological predisposition (hypothesis that homosexuals and heterosexuals may differ with respect to the hormones they were exposed to while still in the womb). EARLY SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT One needs to develop an appropriate gender identity - males need to think of themselves as males, and females as females. This development is quite complex and begins in the womb. Prenatal hormones For the first couple of months after conception, both sexes are identical in appearance. Between 2 and 3 months, a primitive gonad develops into testes (if XY) or into ovaries (if XX). They start producing sex hormones, which then control the development of internal reproduction structures and the external genitals. The critical hormone in genital development is androgen. If enough androgen is produced, the newborn will have male genitals; if there is insufficient androgen, the newborn will have female genitals, even if it is genetically male. After the genitals, androgen begins to masculinize the brain. Hormones versus Environment In cases in which hormonal imbalances result in hermaphrodites (individuals born with both male and female tissue), the assigned label and the sex role in which the individual is raised seem to have greater influence on gender identity than do the individual’s genes and hormones.
Environmental conditions shape behavior through learning; a person’s behavior, in turn, shapes the environment. Persons and situations influence each other reciprocally (abipusishkai). To predict behavior, we need to know how the characteristics of the individual interact with the characteristics of the situation. The S.C. approach is the contemporary descendent of behaviorism and its outgrowth, stimulus-response psychology, which were dominant in the first half of this century. Like the psychoanalytic approach, the S.C. approach to personality is very deterministic. In contrast to the psychoanalytic approach, however, it pays very little attention to biological determinants. Like its parent, behaviorism, the social learning approach has been strongly influenced by the ideas of Darwin. The processes of learning shape the individual’s behavioral repertoire to be adaptive to his or her environment. Through its emphasis on specifying the environmental variables that evoke specific behaviors, S.C. theory has made a major contribution to both clinical psychology and personality theory. It has led us to see human actions as reactions to specific environments, and it has helped us to focus on the way in which environments control our behavior and how they can be changed to modify behavior. The careful application of learning principles has proved successful in changing maladaptive behavior. S.C. theorists have also challenged the notion that individuals are cross-situanionally consistent, forcing other personality theorists to reexamine the fundamental assumptions of their approaches. S.C. theorists have been criticized for overemphasizing the importance of situational influences on behavior and thus losing the person in personality psychology. Many personality theorists are unwilling to concede that personality has as little cross-situational consistency as social learning implies.
Sleep disorders
2009-12-22
INSOMNIA The term insomnia is used in reference to complaints about a symptom, namely, dissatisfaction with the amount or quality of one’s sleep. Whether or not a person has insomnia is almost always a subjective decision. A difficult feature of insomnia is that people seem to overestimate their sleep loss. One study that monitored the sleep of people who identified themselves as insomniacs found that only about half of them were actually awake as much as 30 minutes during the night. The problem may be that light or restless sleep sometimes fells like wakefulness or that some people remember only time spent awake and think they have not slept because they have no memory of doing so. NARCOLEPSY AND APNEA Two relatively rare but severe sleep disorders are narcolepsy and apnea. A person with narcolepsy may fall asleep while writing a letter, driving a car, or carrying on a conversation. Individuals with this dysfunction have recurring, irresistible attacks of drowsiness (apsnūdimas). These episodes can occur several times a day in severe cases, and last from a few second to 15-30 minutes. Essentially, narcolepsy is the intrusion (įsibrovimas) of REM episodes into daytime hours. During attacks victims go quickly into a REM state, so rapidly in fact that they may lose muscle control and collapse (smarkiai nusilpti) before they can lie down, they may report experiencing hallucinations. Narcolepsy runs in families, and there is evidence that a specific gene or combination of genes confers susceptibility (teikia jautruma) to the disorder. In sleep apnea the individual stops breathing while asleep. There are two reasons for apnea attacks. One reason is that the brain fails to send a “breathe” signal to the diaphragm and other breathing muscles, thus causing breathing to stop. The other reason is that muscles art the top of the throat become too relaxed, allowing the windpipe (gerklė, trachėja) to partially close, thereby forcing the breathing muscles to pull harder on incoming air, which causes the airway to completely collapse. During an apnea, the oxygen level of the blood drops dramatically, leading to the secretion of emergency hormones. This reaction causes the sleeper to awaken in order to begin breathing again. Most people have a few apneas a night, but people with severe sleep problems may have several hundred apneas per night. With each apnea they wake up in order to resume breathing, but these arousals are so brief they are generally unaware of doing so. The result is that those who suffer from apnea can spend 12 or more hours in bed each night and still be so sleepy the next day that they cannot function and will fall asleep even in the middle of a conversation. Sleep apnea is common among older men. Not waking up is probably one of the main reasons people die in their sleep. SLEEP DEPRIVATION (miego atėmimas, netekimas) . The need for sleep seems so important that we might expect being deprived of sleep for several nights to have serious consequences. Numerous studies have shown, however, that the only consistent effects of sleep deprivation are drowsiness, a desire to sleep, and a tendency to fall asleep easily. Subjects kept awake for 50 hours or more show nothing more noticeable than transient inattentions, confusions, or misperceptions. Even sleepless periods exceeding four days produce little in the way of severely disturbed behavior. In one study in which a subject was kept awake for 11 days and nights, there were no unusually deviant responses. Intellectual activities such as answering short test questions seem unaffected by several nights of sleep deprivation. ADVICE FOR A GOOD NIGHT’S SLEEP. • Establish a regular schedule of going to bed and getting up • Stay away form caffeinated drinks like coffee or cola for several hours before bedtime. Drink milk. • Don’t eat heavily before going to bed • Regular exercise will help you sleep better • Relax before bedtime, avoid stressful thoughts
First of all, the slogan misses an important point. The death penalty does not punish people for killing, but for murder. Killing is justified when it is done in self-defense. Killing means to cause death. Murder, on the other hand, is defined as, "the unlawful and malicious or premeditated killing of one human being by another". "Kill," "murder," and "execute" are not interchangeable terms. Death penalty opponents would like us to believe otherwise. Just because two actions result in the same end does not make them morally equivalent. If it were so, legal incarceration would be equated with kidnapping, lovemaking with rape, self-defense with assault, etc. Therefore, the slogan is better stated, "We execute people to show people that murder is wrong." Morality is defined as "the principles of right and wrong." As moral creatures, humans deserve praise for good deeds, and punishment for bad ones. Punishment may range from a slap on the wrist to death, but the punishment must fit the crime. Morally, it is wrong to incarcerate someone for murder. A sentence of life in an air-conditioned, cable-equipped prison where a person gets free meals three times a day, personal recreation time, and regular visits with friends and family is a slap in the face of morality. People will say here that not all prisons are like the one cited. This betrays an ignorance, however, of current trends. Eventually, criminal rights activists will see to it that all prisons are nice places to go. But regardless of the conditions of a particular prison, someone who murders another human being can only be made to pay for his actions by forfeiting his own life. This is so, simply because a loss of freedom does not and cannot compare to a loss of life. In reality, the murderer actually gets off easy when he is sentenced to death. Executions in this country are performed by lethal injection and electrocution. If a person is lethally injected, he is first put to sleep, and then he is administered drugs that will stop his heart. If a person faces the electric chair, he is dead within seconds. Compare this to the heinous crimes of the murderer, where often the victim will go through excruciating pain for minutes, hours, or sometimes days. The opponents of death penalty gives five reasons why the death penalty should be abolished. Those reasons are quite commonly given, so I will address their objections here. 1. The death penalty is racist. 2. The death penalty punishes the poor. These are basically the same argument. What it boils down to is "the death penalty is not applied fairly." This cannot be an argument against the death penalty. If it were, then it would be an argument against all punishments. To argue that the death penalty is to be abolished because it is not fairly imposed is to admit that if it were imposed fairly it would be okay. This is not an argument against the death penalty but an argument to improve the justice system. Is the system unfair? Fix it. What is unfair is not that the black and poor prisoners get what they deserve. What is unfair is that the rich and white prisoners do not. 3. The death penalty condemns the innocent to die. There is absolutely no proof for this statement. The possibility of an innocent person being executed is extremely small, and continues to decrease with the improvement of forensic science. It is true that death row prisoners have been released, but it is not true that they were innocent. Consider the following fact: A judgment of acquittal is final. Even if overwhelming evidence is later uncovered, the prosecution can never appeal. Likewise, if a conviction is reversed on appeal because the evidence of guilt was legally insufficient to prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt, then the defendant cannot be retried. Furthermore, if a court decides that the evidence brought against the defendant was legally insufficient, it is not saying that the defendant was actually innocent. By making this decision, the court is merely saying that the prosecution did not prove the defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. We must make a distinction when we use the words "acquittal" and "innocent." The media often overlooks this distinction, and thrives on causing widespread panic that an innocent person was falsely convicted. Being acquitted, however, does not mean that the defendant did not actually commit the crime. A jury must acquit "someone who is probably guilty but whose guilt is not established beyond a reasonable doubt. 4. The death penalty is not a deterrent against violent crime. The death penalty as a deterrent to crime is not the issue. Capital punishment is, pardon the redundancy, a punishment for crime. As a punishment, it is 100% effective; every time it is used, the prisoner dies. Additionally, the death penalty is actually 100% effective as a deterrent to crime: the murderer will never commit another crime once he has been executed. 5. The death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment. The death penalty is not cruel and unusual punishment. The framers of the Constitution supported the death penalty, so it is ridiculous to claim that cruel and unusual punishment refers to the death penalty. Furthermore, it is logically impossible to be cruel while punishing a guilty murderer for murdering an innocent victim. I have tried to argue here that the death penalty is moral and just. We must never forget that no one has to be executed; if no one murders, no one is executed. Murderers are not innocent people fighting for their lives; that statement describes their victims.
Short-term memory
2009-12-22
SM is a intermediary (tarpininkas) storage between SeM and LM. One of its functions is in some way to process information and transmit it for further processing and storage. For this first of all is used encoding. Acoustic encoding is very common in SM and for a long time psychologists thought that was the only method of encoding. Evidence of its importance is documented by that show, for example, the letters T and C are more likely to be confused in SM than C and O, even when they are presented visually.Such results suggest that subjects are recoding the visual symbols to acoustic representations, thus explaining why the similar-sounding C and T are more easily confuced than the different-sounding C and O. There is ample evidence of visual and especially semantic encoding in SM as well. One of the most important aspects of SM is its limited capacity. It is 7 ± 2 elements for a wide variety of materials. There is a tremenduous amount of variation of what can be put into each of those seven bits. For example, we can hold seven numbers in our SM, but also7 words, 7 pictures, or sometimes even 7 sentences. In fact, the bits may be made considerably larger through the processes of chunking, by which we combine pieces of information together to allow them to take up less space in working memory. Another important process that occurs in SM is rehearsal, the temporary activation or recycling or information through memory. Rehearsal may be maintenance (holds information in SM long enough for it to be acted upon in some way) or elaborative (nuodugnus) rehearsal (helps transfer information to LM). Elaborative rehearsal relates information to other concepts already in LM and and develops new asociations between these concepts. The explanations offered for forgetting from SM generally cluster around two general phenomena. On the one hand forgetting is said to occur due to decay of the memory trace over time. The other class of explanations uses the consept of interference. Material is forgotten because other material that is similar is some way interferes by replacing or distorting it. Interference may be retroactive, which means it occurs after original leaning. And proactive, when interfering material comes first and hinder the learning of something else later. We use SM when we are thinking about something at the moment, solving problems (in this case information is retrieved from LM to SM). SM plays a role in understanding language. Findings suggest that we have a special memory system for processing language. A patient who has a defective memory span but normal language understanding has an impaired SM but an intact language memory. The special memory for language seems limited to relatively simple sentences. Once sentences become complex SM is brought in for help. When it come sto higher-level language processes like following a conversation or reading a text, SM appears to play a crucial role. When reading for understanding, often we must consciously relate new sentences to some prior material in the text.
Shakespeare Hamlet
2009-12-22
To begin with, all people use various services: postal services, telephone, telegraph, bank, police, diplomatic services, car maintenance services, petrol stations and personal services. Personal service establishments are very useful and many people visit them every day. I`m not an exception . When I am going to go to a party I go to hairdresser’s establishment. If I need my shoes to get mended, I go to the repair shop. When they are rather worn, I take them to the shoemaker’s. Occasionally I need to have my photos taken. Then I go to the photographer’s. In addition I have a camera at home so I can take photos myself. Unfortunately I can’t make photographs, so I have to go to the photographer’s and have them made. As far as I can see the telephone is widespread nowadays. The telephone is of great importance in business, in administrative relations and in the national economy. I have the telephone at home too and I like to talk over it. When necessary, the police, the fire brigade, the first aid and ambulance service can be called by anybody from any telephone. It is easy of access. You have to dial only two digits. We use the fire brigade. For example, once there was a strange smell and smoke from our neighbours door. Such being the case, we call a fire brigade. Fortunately for us it was only burnt stewpot [‹stju:pƒt]. What comes to postal service, I use it too. I like to communicate with people. I have some friends in Lithuania and Denmark, and I communicate with them. I send letters to Denmark by air mail. It costs more but it is faster. At the post office you can send telegrams too. I can send parcels with gifts to my friends when they celebrate their birthdays. A few years ago I used to go to café-internet. There you can Relax with a cup of tea or Espresso while you Surf the Net. Now I give preference to my computer at home. Finally sometimes I use medical services. If I am not ill very seriously I treat myself. However, a few years ago I broke my hand so for this reason I had to use services of medical professions. Another reason why I go to see the doctors is medical certificate for school. Once a half-year I go to the dentist. On the whole I havn`t a fear of various medical institutions like dentist and so on. I like listening comments and discussions on current affairs, interviews with various people on the radio. The programs are followed by music it`s the main reason why it interests me. I like to watch something on TV in the evenings. When my radio or TV has broken down I have to repaired it in the service shop. And when I was going to go abroad I used the diplomatic services. In that case I went to Vilnius embassy for my visa. In conclusion, all services are in your interest. Service industry provide a variety of facilities to help in every situation. Moreover it`s easy of access. And to my mind it make our life easier.
Services
2009-12-22
To begin with, all people use various services: postal services, telephone, telegraph, bank, police, diplomatic services, car maintenance services, petrol stations and personal services. Personal service establishments are very useful and many people visit them every day. I`m not an exception . When I am going to go to a party I go to hairdresser’s establishment. If I need my shoes to get mended, I go to the repair shop. When they are rather worn, I take them to the shoemaker’s. Occasionally I need to have my photos taken. Then I go to the photographer’s. In addition I have a camera at home so I can take photos myself. Unfortunately I can’t make photographs, so I have to go to the photographer’s and have them made. As far as I can see the telephone is widespread nowadays. The telephone is of great importance in business, in administrative relations and in the national economy. I have the telephone at home too and I like to talk over it. When necessary, the police, the fire brigade, the first aid and ambulance service can be called by anybody from any telephone. It is easy of access. You have to dial only two digits. We use the fire brigade. For example, once there was a strange smell and smoke from our neighbours door. Such being the case, we call a fire brigade. Fortunately for us it was only burnt stewpot [‹stju:pƒt]. What comes to postal service, I use it too. I like to communicate with people. I have some friends in Lithuania and Denmark, and I communicate with them. I send letters to Denmark by air mail. It costs more but it is faster. At the post office you can send telegrams too. I can send parcels with gifts to my friends when they celebrate their birthdays. A few years ago I used to go to café-internet. There you can Relax with a cup of tea or Espresso while you Surf the Net. Now I give preference to my computer at home. Finally sometimes I use medical services. If I am not ill very seriously I treat myself. However, a few years ago I broke my hand so for this reason I had to use services of medical professions. Another reason why I go to see the doctors is medical certificate for school. Once a half-year I go to the dentist. On the whole I havn`t a fear of various medical institutions like dentist and so on. I like listening comments and discussions on current affairs, interviews with various people on the radio. The programs are followed by music it`s the main reason why it interests me. I like to watch something on TV in the evenings. When my radio or TV has broken down I have to repaired it in the service shop. And when I was going to go abroad I used the diplomatic services. In that case I went to Vilnius embassy for my visa. In conclusion, all services are in your interest. Service industry provide a variety of facilities to help in every situation. Moreover it`s easy of access. And to my mind it make our life easier.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (4,74 kB)
Rape a women
2009-12-22
This is just one out of millions stories of rape. Several books can be written describing the stories of rape and many more volumes about the feelings of the raped women. Every day newspapers are full of reports of rape. People are scared. We know the definition of rape, but very few know what a victim feels. The act of not being able to choose what you want to do with your very own body is a violation in itself. No one understands that feeling until it happens. It is like knowing that you are going to get into a car accident, seeing the other vehicle approaching, not being able to stop it, but it lasting much, much longer. We are taught that we can choose how to live, but in case of raping we can not do anyhing at all, just wait until the end: end of the act or end of life… “I know that I will never, ever be the same person again. In fact, after it happened, I asked both my daughter and my sister if I looked different. Because I have changed so much, it must be on my face”, -says a raped 49-year woman. There are many explanations of a crime, its reasons and the effects on the victim. The view towards the causes of a rape changed over centuries. But almost all theories, no matter how old are they and their authors have one common trait: they blame the criminal and emphasize that he has some psychical disorders. Actually, there is a question: who is a victim: a raped woman or a rapist. They both are victims. The impact of rape on the victims emtional health appears to be huge. Several studies have found that during the first six months after rape, women show high levels of depression, anxiety, dismay and many other indicators of emotional distress. Some women manage to cope with it, fight and repair their lives. But the rapist cannot. He is not normal. A normal man cannot do such horrible things with so sad circumstances just for such a short pleasure. S. Brownmiller, a feminist, claims that the main motive of rape is a man’s asspiration to control and predominate over woman. Psychologists support this idea and claim that a rapist had problems in communicating in early childhood and he can not have close relationship with people. He is very lonely and repulsed and that is why he wants revenge. This theory also explains why he chooses women: physically women are weaker than men and there is much more chance to suceed. Statistical data show that the majority of the rapists feel that they are of little value. That is why they want to show their strenght and choose not very self-confident, weak and young women ( the most common age is 16-25 years). I ask a victim of a rape: “Was he normal?”. She is shocked by such a stupid question: “Normal? That bastard is sick. He was not a human. He was worse than an animal”. The biological theory explains that rapists are born with the savage instincts of wild animals. A bent for aggression and other crimes is inherited and lots of evidence is found. Christiansen’s research shows that if one of the monozygotic twins is a criminal, it is predictible that the other one will be a criminal as well. One more scientifically prooved explanation is related with internal inhibitions and controls. Only very few rapists are irresponsible for their actions. But the majority of criminals do not have such internal inhibitions and values as normal people do. Psychologists assert that internal controls are not develoveloped because of deficient or deviant values of a person. It is obvious that a man with strong and right values does not even think of such a humiliation of an innocent woman and of ruining her life. Only the one who thinks that it is quite normal to take by force from a woman what in normal conditions she can give to a man, can rape and after that feel almost normally or just feel nothing. And this leads to the only conclusion- he is not like the majority, he is not normal. Psychoanalytic theory, which also says that rapists are not normal people, was developed by Zigmund Freud. He says that the Superego (or the conscience) of rapists is not strong enough to contervale the wild inborn instincts of the Id. S.Freud claims that the sexual instinct is the most powerful in people’s decisions, but the Superego manages to control it. But when the Superego is weak, man can listen to his wild instinct to satisfy the sexual wish to have sex with any woman right here and right now. This disorder is very dangerous both to that individual and for society. Freud treats such men as not normal, but curable. But rape is not just a sexual intercause, but a physical injury as well. About seventy percent of rape is combined with severe injuries. Thanks God that just a little part is followed by death. There are such sadistic rapists who keep their victims for several days, no matter wheather she has children, hwo are waiting for their mother to return home. One married woman was taken from her own home and beaten and raped for seven days. Were they normal? It is up to You to decide. A normal man is ashamed to beat a woman at all. And here four “normal” men beat and rape a married woman for several days and do not care that her baby is waiting for his sweetest mummy. What do those men get for such actions? Ten orgasms and an opportunity to train their muscles? Was it worth the trouble? They think so, because they are deviants. Some men are such devils that they rape their own children and wives- the most precious people in their lives. The worst word in the world would be too kind for them. And for rape they are inprisoned only for eight to fifteen years. But the question is why they aren’t sentenced by capital punishment. They come out of prison and rape again. Another kind of rape is so-called “date rapes”. Such rapists are deviant in few aspects: they do not understand the meaning of a very simple word “No” ; and they feel satisfaction in having sex with a woman who may be screaming, crying, trying to escape… The main difference from the simple rapists is that they rarely beat their victim. But this is not a big comfort to the victim. A rapist can be anyone: a father, a grandfather, an uncle, a neighbour, a son… It would be good if physical appearance of the rapists would differ from the appearance of normal men. But it does not. Only psychics differ greatly: the men who can rape women have very serious problems in communicating with people, feel that they are of little value, do not have internal inhibitions and controls. The rapists are not like other men- they are not normal.
So I can assert that the greatest influence on environment has the philosophy. And the biggest philosophies are the religions. But now I have to be disillusioned with the absence of the proper religion. If we take for example the Indian - this religion treats the world as an illusion. The reality is the great one. I don’t think that kind of philosophy / religion is effective in forming a backdrop for environmental responsibility. We are growing larger and larger as a world. More and more people will be inhabiting the earth, and we will need to do more to see that the world can provide for us all. Where will we find the appropriate philosophy for it? Indian religion, with respect for the spirits of the animals and the trees, cuts closer to the kind of philosophy I would like to see. However, the religion is perhaps too deferential. Indian religion arose in an atmosphere of relative abundance and few people. Indian philosophy of the environment is predicated on an abundance and not subduing our environment to make it produce more. The ways are traditional and more passive. The earth gives us what we need, and we take what we need. With the amount of population of the world today, however, we do need the division of labour and economies of scale to allow for the abundance of food and needed items to feed, house, and cloth the world’s people. If we look to the East we will found that this philosophy is not appropriate at all. Too big population will cause the lack of food, houses, and clothes. For some people of this religion the ideas of saving the environment may seem completely alien. In my opinion some places of this religion should be changed, should be updated. The same thing is with the Christian religion. If we look through the history we can find lots of facts when Christianity was trying to stop the development of science. If it had happened differently the great pollution would have started earlier. But on other hand the people would have earlier noticed the impact of human-beings on the environment. The Christians tenets indicates all the human’s behaviour, except his relationship with nature.
Protecting nature
2009-12-22
So I can assert that the greatest influence on environment has the philosophy. And the biggest philosophies are the religions. But now I have to be disillusioned with the absence of the proper religion. If we take for example the Indian - this religion treats the world as an illusion. The reality is the great one. I don’t think that kind of philosophy / religion is effective in forming a backdrop for environmental responsibility. We are growing larger and larger as a world. More and more people will be inhabiting the earth, and we will need to do more to see that the world can provide for us all. Where will we find the appropriate philosophy for it? Indian religion, with respect for the spirits of the animals and the trees, cuts closer to the kind of philosophy I would like to see. However, the religion is perhaps too deferential. Indian religion arose in an atmosphere of relative abundance and few people. Indian philosophy of the environment is predicated on an abundance and not subduing our environment to make it produce more. The ways are traditional and more passive. The earth gives us what we need, and we take what we need. With the amount of population of the world today, however, we do need the division of labour and economies of scale to allow for the abundance of food and needed items to feed, house, and cloth the world’s people. If we look to the East we will found that this philosophy is not appropriate at all. Too big population will cause the lack of food, houses, and clothes. For some people of this religion the ideas of saving the environment may seem completely alien. In my opinion some places of this religion should be changed, should be updated. The same thing is with the Christian religion. If we look through the history we can find lots of facts when Christianity was trying to stop the development of science. If it had happened differently the great pollution would have started earlier. But on other hand the people would have earlier noticed the impact of human-beings on the environment. The Christians tenets indicates all the human’s behaviour, except his relationship with nature.
Profession
2009-12-22
Everyone needs at least one profession in his life. So when you begin spending sleepless nights, thinking about a job and money, when you think of the plans for the future it's no doubt about it you're ready to choose most suitable career for you. So in the world there are a lot of different professions: you can work with people as a doctor, lawyer, receptionist, teacher; on the enterprise, bank, school or state institution. And what kind of a profession you choose is mainly depend on yourself. And I think it's very difficult task for everybody. And now there is such situation in the life that it is very difficult to find some worthy job especially suitable for you. So if you want some-how to get a job, you can make plans for the future when you study still at school or university. It's a good idea to take different factors into account: job satisfaction - your future job must satisfy you; money - it's important that your future profession must be well-paid or you must have a high salary to support the family, good conditions; training; traveling, the place of work -in the office, from home, in the open area or abroad. For example I'm still not sure about my workplace and conditions because I know the fact that my future career will be my central part of my future life. Everybody wants to breathe fresh air, and even I want to locate myself in a clean place. I don't want to work in a city because there are so many problems like heavy traffic and population. If I have a chance to choose a place where I prefer, I would choose a quiet and peaceful place near the Baltic sea. I think the "working condition" should fit and care about my lifestyle. I have seen several people who get stresses from their jobs. If I always have bad moods and get so much stresses from my work, I would rather be unemployed than be a worker. I would like to make enough money to provide myself and my family. Sometimes, I have felt I'm greediness because I want to have so many things such as a big house, a nice car, and many others. So nowadays more and more students are trying to find a part-time job. There are a lot of reasons for it, but the common one – lack of money. It maybe a bad economical situation of a whole family or teenagers just need money for their entertainments. Starting a part-time job, not every young person thinks about pros or cons of this decision. On the positive side, extra incomes improve economical situation of the family. If students earn money for their needs, they also help parents – don`t ask them for additional pocket money. What is more, young people become more independent among their friends. On the other hand, part-time job can become harmful for studies at school on in another educational institution. Students can skip courses, motivating that their job and money they earn are much more significant, then studies. To sum up, it`s obvious that working and studying at the same time is a very complicated task. In my opinion, not everybody can manage to do all things perfectly depend only on person`s qualities. So nowadays more and more people are very busy with work and other activity. Never before in the history of the world have businessmen traveled so much as they do today. It is not surprising because we are living in a world of growing international trade and expanding economic and technical cooperation. Fascinating though it is for tourist travelling, however, has become the most tiring of all the occupations for many businessmen and experts. Nowadays people who go on business mostly travel by air as it is the fastest means of travelling.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (6,13 kB)
Popular music
2009-12-22
. I’m not saying all pop fans are closed minded to the point where they listen to the music genre that is currently trendy in hopes of it helping them position themselves socially. I’m also not denying the fact, people like that are out there. In most cases, I think people listen to pop because for some reason they’re not involved in another music scene, so it’s all they know exists. Record labels systematically chose who they want to sign, and then promote them to the public. Therefore, they have an enormous influence on what music America and many other countries listen to. This is bad news because corporate promoters don’t just go out looking for talent to sign to their label regardless of what kind of music it is attached to. Companies use statistics to determine what they think will sell, and sign whoever fits the right criteria. They don’t bother looking for artists who aren’t playing what’s hot; they want bands playing the sound they know sells. Labels also want bands with catchy songs, and I don’t know about you but I think catchy giggles are for advertisements. Real musicians have to be careful where they put their signature, because any one who takes them self seriously wouldn’t stand for a company who censers their art. Also you may have noticed TV is now just as much a source of music as radio, so you better be an attractive conformist if you want to be promoted as an artist in the business of pop music. MTV, without doubt, plays a major role in how generic popular music has become. Obviously the birth of music videos gave big business a chance to sell music to the other four senses. The real opportunity for MTV to cash in on the music industry wasn’t just picking up their crumbs. Just luring in those people whose ears are uninterested in music with flashy colors and shiny things is no longer their motive. Quickly MTV figured out eye candy doesn’t sell nearly as well as the fantasy life the right image can supply. There is nothing wrong with having an image, everyone portrays an image whether they like it or not. In this case the problem is, MTV uses image to sell a product where image should be considered irrelevant. The effect of doing this is closing the viewers’ minds; it causes people to listen to music only on the expressional level.
Back to the point, I must say that it is very difficult to show only four as there are many places in interest in Lithuania. From what I know, there are many national parksin Lithuania. As a matter of fact, I could take my guest to few of them. Firstly, I would show to my guest The Trakai National Park. This park was designed in 1992 to embrace the historical city of Trakai, the forests, lakes and villages. The most significant historic monument is the Island Castle, on lake Galvė, which was built in the 14th century. The gothic castle is an impressive example of Lithuanian fortress architecture. From the tower of the castle you can see the shores of the lake, surrounding it like a green wreath. The castle now houses a valuable ethnological museum. In summer, chamber music concerts are held every Sunday in the representation hall. I am definitely sure, that foreigners would be impressed by this charms of nature. Secondly, I would be able to show one more national park. Žemaitija National Park was founded in 1991. The main aims of the park are to preserve the lake Plateliai system and the nature, to make better conditions for endangered species of flora and fauna, to develop tourism. It's also important to keep in mind that in the park my dear guest can have a good rest and spend holidays or weekend in the fresh air, in picturesque places, play sports and games, visit museums of traditional woodearved sculptures. As far as Vilnius is concerned, it is the capital of Lithuania. Vilnius is the largest city in the Republic and a cultural center. It goes with the teritory that in case you are going to show Lithuania to foreigner, you must show him the capital of Lithuania. Sitting at the top of Gediminas hill are the ruins of the Upper Fortress. The 14th-16th century gothic castle is both an architectural and historical monument. The bottom floors now house a small museum where you can learn about the history of Vilnius and see displays of archaeological findings. A narrow spiral staircase leads you to the top of the tower and a breathtaking view of Vilnius. Be sure to take in the view from all directions - opposite of the city, illuminating like a vision, is Hill of Three Crosses. Your eye will naturally be drawn to the classical elegance of Vilnius Cathedral, which sits in the middle of Cathedral Square. And the last place, which I would love to show to my guest is Neringa. The fact is well known that Neringa is home to the longest street in the country. You have a chance to choose to stay in traditional family house or in luxurious hotels. It's no matter who is your guest, there he can take relaxing and fun-filled holiday. To sum it up, I was given a chance to tell only about four beautiful places in Lithuania, but I can't go along with that it is all what our guest can see in Lithuania.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (5,05 kB)
Phobias
2009-12-22
In 400 B.C., Hippocrates suggested that there were four basic personality types, associated with the four bodily humors. • An excess of black bile produces the melancholic (depressed) type; • An excess of yellow bile produces the choleric (irritable) type; • Blood produces the sanguine (optimistic) type; • And phlegm produces the phlegmatic (calm, stolid) type. A more differentiated typology was published by Theophrastus (372-287B.C.). He proposed a set of 30 personality types. Each of them began with a brief definition of the dominant characteristic of the type and then described several behaviors typical of the type. Among his characters were the Liar, the Tasteless Man, the Flatterer and the Penurious Man. Body physique has also been a popular basis for personality typologies. The idea that body build and personality characteristics are related is reflected in such popular stereotypes as “fat people are jolly” or “skinny people are intellectuals”. In the 1940s the American physician William Sheldon reported correlations between three bodily physiques, called somatotypes, and temperament. • The endomorphic somatotype looks soft and round and has a relaxed, sociable temperament. • The mesomorphic somatotype is muscular and athletic; the main features of his temperament are energy, assertiveness, and courage. • Ectomorphic (tall and thin somatotype has a restrained, fearful, introverted, artistic temperament. However, Sheldon’s evidence was not very strong and the possibility that his temperament rating simply reflected popular stereotypes was left. Although most contemporary psychologists do not consider somatotyping useful, some have continued to refine the system and to present confirming data. All these theories are called type theories because they propose that individuals can be categorized into discrete types that are qualitatively different from one another. Typologies have been useful in many other sciences as chemistry (the periodic chart of the elements), biology (concepts of a species and of sex). Netherless, psychological type theories of personality are currently not very popular. The very simplicity that makes them appealing (patrauklus) also makes them less capable of capturing the complexity and variability of human personality. So in a few words: the typologies of personality have been rejected for the wrong reasons and their virtues have been overlooked. The typologies comprise (apima) discontinuous (nutrūkstantis, netolydus) categories like male and female, and the traits are conceived (suprantamas) of as continuous dimensions. Sheldon, rather than categorizing body physiques into one of three pure types, rated them on three dimensions, using 7-point rating scales. For example the man who get 2-7-4 would be low on endomorphy, high on mesomorphy and moderate on ectomorphy. More generally, trait theories of personality assume that persons vary simultaneously on a number of personality dimensions or scales. We might rate an individual on scales of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness and so on. Actually we are all trait theorists, when we informally describe ourselves and others with such adjectives as “aggressive”, “cautious”, “excitable”, “intelligent” and so on. Trait psychologists attempt to go beyond our everyday trait conceptions of personality, however. Specifically, they seek • to arrive at a manageably small set of trait descriptors that can encompass the diversity of human personality • to craft ways of measuring personality traits reliably and validly and • to discover the relationships among traits and between traits and specific behaviors.
In 400 B.C., Hippocrates suggested that there were four basic personality types, associated with the four bodily humors. • An excess of black bile produces the melancholic (depressed) type; • An excess of yellow bile produces the choleric (irritable) type; • Blood produces the sanguine (optimistic) type; • And phlegm produces the phlegmatic (calm, stolid) type. A more differentiated typology was published by Theophrastus (372-287B.C.). He proposed a set of 30 personality types. Each of them began with a brief definition of the dominant characteristic of the type and then described several behaviors typical of the type. Among his characters were the Liar, the Tasteless Man, the Flatterer and the Penurious Man. Body physique has also been a popular basis for personality typologies. The idea that body build and personality characteristics are related is reflected in such popular stereotypes as “fat people are jolly” or “skinny people are intellectuals”. In the 1940s the American physician William Sheldon reported correlations between three bodily physiques, called somatotypes, and temperament. • The endomorphic somatotype looks soft and round and has a relaxed, sociable temperament. • The mesomorphic somatotype is muscular and athletic; the main features of his temperament are energy, assertiveness, and courage. • Ectomorphic (tall and thin somatotype has a restrained, fearful, introverted, artistic temperament. However, Sheldon’s evidence was not very strong and the possibility that his temperament rating simply reflected popular stereotypes was left. Although most contemporary psychologists do not consider somatotyping useful, some have continued to refine the system and to present confirming data. All these theories are called type theories because they propose that individuals can be categorized into discrete types that are qualitatively different from one another. Typologies have been useful in many other sciences as chemistry (the periodic chart of the elements), biology (concepts of a species and of sex). Netherless, psychological type theories of personality are currently not very popular. The very simplicity that makes them appealing (patrauklus) also makes them less capable of capturing the complexity and variability of human personality. So in a few words: the typologies of personality have been rejected for the wrong reasons and their virtues have been overlooked. The typologies comprise (apima) discontinuous (nutrūkstantis, netolydus) categories like male and female, and the traits are conceived (suprantamas) of as continuous dimensions. Sheldon, rather than categorizing body physiques into one of three pure types, rated them on three dimensions, using 7-point rating scales. For example the man who get 2-7-4 would be low on endomorphy, high on mesomorphy and moderate on ectomorphy. More generally, trait theories of personality assume that persons vary simultaneously on a number of personality dimensions or scales. We might rate an individual on scales of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness and so on. Actually we are all trait theorists, when we informally describe ourselves and others with such adjectives as “aggressive”, “cautious”, “excitable”, “intelligent” and so on. Trait psychologists attempt to go beyond our everyday trait conceptions of personality, however. Specifically, they seek • to arrive at a manageably small set of trait descriptors that can encompass the diversity of human personality • to craft ways of measuring personality traits reliably and validly and • to discover the relationships among traits and between traits and specific behaviors.
Mass media
2009-12-22
Good morning, today I`m going to speak about ‘Mass media’. To start with, the mass media play an important part in our lives. Newspapers, radio and especially TV inform us of what is going on in this world and give us wonderful possibilities for education and entertainment. They also influence the way we see the world and shape our views. Of course, not all newspapers and TV programmes report the events objectively but serious journalists and TV reporters try to be fair and provide us with reliable information. It is true that the world today is full of dramatic events and most news seems to be bad news. But people aren't interested in ordinary events. That is why there are so many programmes and articles about natural disasters, plane crashes, wars, murders and robberies. Good news doesn't usually make headlines. Bad news does. To my mind say that journalists are given too much freedom. They often intrude on people's private lives. They follow celebrities and print sensational stories about them which are untrue or half-true. They take photos of them in their most intimate moments. The question is — should this be allowed? The main source of news for millions of people is television. People like TV news because they can see everything with their own eyes. And that's an important advantage. Seeing, as we know, is believing. Besides, it's much more difficult for politicians to lie in front of the cameras than on the pages of newspapers. As far as can see, many people prefer the radio. It's good to listen to in the car, or in the open air, or when you do something about the house. In addition, other scours of information are newspapers. The best known are `Lietuvos rytas` and citizens  of Kaunas read `Kauno diena`. These concern themselves, as far as possible, with factual reports of major national and international news stories, with the world of politics and business and with the arts and sport. Newspapers don't react to events as quickly as TV, but they usually provide us with extra detail, comment and background information. The Internet has recently become another important source of information. It is believed that in the year of 2010 there will be at least 500 million people on the system enjoying virtual reality. It means that more and more people use Internet for searching the news instead of reading newspapers or watching news on Tv. Its main advantage is that news appears on the screen as soon as things happen in real life and you don't have to wait for news time on TV. Thanks to Internet now news are easy of access. To sum up, mass media reach very large numbers of people. For this reason it plays a significant role in our lives. More than even before, mass media offers us a window to the world and it depends only on you which scours of information to choose.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (5,11 kB)
Main Causes of Great Depression Paul Alexander 3rd: May 13, 1996 The Great Depression was the worst economic slump ever in U.S. history, and one which spread to virtually all of the industrialized world. The depression began in late 1929 and lasted for about a decade. Many factors played a role in bringing about the depression; however, the main cause for the Great Depression was the combination of the greatly unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920’s, and the extensive stock market speculation that took place during the latter part that same decade. The maldistribution of wealth in the 1920’s existed on many levels. Money was distributed between the rich and the middle-class, between industry and agriculture within the United States, and between the U.S. and Europe. This imbalance of wealth created an unstable economy. The excessive speculation in the late 1920’s kept the stock market artificially high, but eventually lead to large market crashes. These market crashes, combined with the maldistribution of wealth, caused the American economy to capsize. The “roaring twenties” was an era when our country prospered tremendously. The nation’s total realized income rose from $74.3 billion in 1923 to $89 billion in 1929. However, the rewards of the “Coolidge Prosperity” of the 1920’s were not shared evently among all Americans. According to a study done by the Brookings Institute, in 1929 the top 0.1% of Americans had a combined income equal to the bottom 42%. That same top 0.1% of Americans in 1929 controlled 34% of all savings, while 80% of Americans had no savings at all. Automotive industry mogul Henry Ford provides a striking example of the unequal distribution of wealth between the rich and middle-class. Henry Ford reported a personal income of $14 million in the same year that the average personal income was $750. By present day standards, where the average yearly income in U.S. is around $18,500, Mr. Ford would be earning over $345 million a year! This maldistribution of income between the rich and middle class grew throughout the 1920’s. While the disposable income per capita rose 9% from 1920 to 1029, those with income within the top 1% enjoyed a stupendous 75% increase in per capita disposable income.
Anglų kalba  Straipsniai   (9,43 kB)
London
2009-12-22
City & Town Overview London The capital of the United Kingdom can be divided into three distinct parts. The main commercial area is around The City, where Roman London was founded and where the medieval township grew up, dominated by the massive fortress of the Tower of London. Further west along the Thames lays Westminster, the centre of government and administration. The West End—running west from Covent Garden to Oxford Street—is the main shopping and entertainment area. Surrounding this core are districts such as Kensington, Chelsea, and Marylebone, that joined London in the 18th century, but retain a separate identity. London's attraction is its cosmopolitanism, rivaling that of New York. An imperial capital in the 19th century, it has become a vibrant world city that is home to a fascinating mix of peoples. Trafalgar Square One of the most famous Squares in the World - With Nelsons Column, the National Gallery and of course the pigeons. The Column itself is some 170 foot high, with the statue of Nelson himself being some 18 foot high. Though one would not think so viewing him from the ground. Admiral Nelson is buried in St Pauls Cathedral. landseer lions -... Named after the Naval Battle of 1805, Trafalgar Square was completed by the mid 1840's. Nelsons Column is surrounded by 4 bronze lions, on granite plinths, unveiled in 1868, sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer, and cast by Marocchetti. At the time Landseer was better known for his animal paintings. Fountains and statues, including one of Charles I on horseback, dating from the 17th century adorn the Square. Yet more sculptures in the form of bronze relief's can be found at the base of the Column depicting scenes from four of Admiral Nelson's Battles. Bus-nelson.jpg On the North side of the Square is the National Gallery, housing masterpieces by Leonardo Da Vinci, Rebens. Alongside is the National Portrait Gallery. ... On the west side is Canada House, while in the North East corner is the Church of St Martins in the Fields.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (147,08 kB)
London
2009-12-22
The main part of London is city. It's the places where London started. Now it's business centre. Few people can afford living in this part of the town - it's very expensive, so most people come there to do their job and leave this region in the evening. Westminster -- it's the central part of the town. Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, National Galleries are situated there. There are many government offices. In one tower of House of Parliament is Big Ben -- the main clock of Great Britain. Just across the street is Westminster Abbey -- main Church of England. New monarch is crowned there, wedding ceremonies of the Royal family take place there. It is also famous for its poets' corner - many famous people are buried there. Not far you can see Trafalgar square with Admiral Nelson's statue. Under his leadership English fleet defeated united Spanish and French forces. Another interesting place is Buckingham Palace. If the Queen is in, you can watch changing guards. West end is the residential part. It's the richest part of London. Not far from there Hyde Park is situated with famous speakers’ corner. East part is the poorest part of London. It is industrial region, so air is polluted; a lot of slums are there. The tower of London is famous for tower and Tower Bridge. Tower is museum now, but it used to be a fortress, state prison, the mint, and treasury. The tower of the bridge in middle ages was used like place of execution. There is one more place of interest - British Museum.
Lithuania
2009-12-22
• The Republic of Lithuania is situated near the Baltic Sea. The length of the sea border is 99 kilometres. Kuršių Nerija, a nearrow split of land, isbetween the Baltic Sea and the Kurish Lagoon. It is often called the Lithuanian Sahara. To the north the country borders on the Republic of Latvia, to the east and south - on Belarus, to the soutwest - on Poland and on the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation. The geometric center of the republic is about two kilometres west of Kėdainiai. The center of Erope is near the village Bernotai, 25 kilometres north of Vilnius. The highest point is Juozapinės hill, not far from Vilnius.It is 293.6 metres above sea level. The Nemunas River flows 937 kilometres. The Tauragnas is the deepest lake. • The first inhabitants had settled in the present territory of Lithuania about 900 BC. Lithuania was first mentioned in aLatin chronicle in 1009. It is believed that Lithuania gotits name from the Lietava River, the right tributary of the River Neris. It flows about 25 kilometres from the town Kernavė. The union of the Baltic tribes developed into the state of Lithuania in the 13th century. King Mindaugas (1251-1263) was thefirst Lithuanian king. The first Lithuanian ruler Gediminas founded the capital Vilnius in 1323. • The yer 1387 was significant as Lithuania was baptized and proclaimed a Christian state. The Battle of Žalgiris took place in 1410 where Grand Duke Vytautas together with the • Lithuanian and Polish armies defeated the Teutonic Order. • In 1918 the Act of independence was signed. The words music of the Russian occupation of Lithuania had started and was followed by the first deportations to Siberia. During World War ll Lithuanians had to join the Soviet army.The Act of the restoration of independence was proclaimed on March 11, 1990. The state holiday is February 16 known as independence Day. • The national flag consists of three colours.Yellow symbolizes the sun, light, and prosperity. Green represents the country's landscape,hope and joy. Red is the colour of the earth,life,and blood. • The founder of Lithuanian fiction is Kristijonas Donelaitis. The national bird is a stork,and the ruth is considered to be the national flower. According to the tradition,an oak is our national tree which sy mbolizes strength and fortitude. • The population is over three million in the republic. 1 700 000 Lithuanians or people of Lithuanian descent live in the whole world.Theaverage life expectancy is 70.5 yers. About 90 percent of Lithuanians are Roman Catholics.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,68 kB)
Lithuania
2009-12-22
The capital of Lithuania is Vilnius. The official language of the state is Lithuanian. Lithuanian flag consists of gold, green and red ribbons. State emblem - white Vytis in the red field. The biggest town in Lithuania is Vilnius, then goes Kaunas, very beautiful town on the place where the river Neris flows into the Nemunas. Klaipeda, Panevezhys, Shiauliai and other big cities too. For the first time Lithuania was mentioned in 1009 in Quedlinburg annals. As a state it was emerged in the early 13th century and Mindaugas became the Grand Duke of Lithuania about 1240. At the end of 14th and the beginning of 15th century Lithuania became one of the most powerful states in the Europe. Lithuania was christened in 14th century, until that time it was pagan. Lithuanian people had to fight a lot for their freedom. The latest occupation ended only in 1990, when on March 11 Lithuania proclaimed its restoration of statehood. There are two big Universities in Lithuania in Vilnius and in Kaunas. University in Vilnius is very old: it was established in 1579, and another University, which received the name of the Vytautas the Great, was founded in 1930.
Life and death
2009-12-22
Though less is known about death. All we know is that the body stops functioning. And no one knows what comes after that, what happens with person’s mind and spirit. Or maybe nothing happens, human existence just ends at the moment of death. So far it is everyone’s business to believe in life after death or not. But there is one question that can be discussed about death: is it meaningful or not? One can say that the one who believes in life after death will give the meaning to it and on the contrary – the one who does not – will not give the meaning to it. But there are people who do not believe in life after death. They even do not know if they believe in something at all and death is something mysterious, something important in human’s life even for them. Why death is so important in human’s life? Is it important? Before answering these questions I checked in the Internet hoping to find something about death. I looked for information in Academic Search Elite and Academic Search Premier databases and found over 20.000 pages related to this theme. Of course, not all of them were only about death itself, some of them where about death of some famous person, but the numbers speak. People talk about it, and if they talk about it – they care about it, it is important for them. However, why others think that it is just “an awful, stinking, absurd horror, and there is no way of giving it meaning”? There may be a lot of reasons and I would like to mention some of them. Let us look at the world history and especially the World War I, World War II and other tragedies. Dead people were buried all together without coffins, without priests (if a man was religious), without any attention. Of course, there were such circumstances – economic situation was bad, no time for normal funeral (have to fight), lots of unknown dead people. The death lost it’s mysteriousness, sacral meaning. Therefore some people think of death if it was only the end of bodies functioning. Though no man can judge them because no-one knows if there is something after death. Everyone knows for sure that the body begins to fall to pieces, begins to putrefy, to stink after death. This is also a reason to think as Rollo May does. But we should think from the other point of view. Every man’s death makes his relatives, friends, acquaintances feel bad, sad, or at least uncomfortable. Some of them say that they miss the person, feel lonely without him. Maybe it can be called egoism, but still person’s death does not pass through without consequences. It makes us stop for a second and think about the eternal questions of life and death. Yet another reason for such thinking could be the fear of death. When people are afraid of something they usually ignore or deny it. Some of them do not even think about it. In this situation a person who thinks so do not want to have any relationships with death and therefore deny it, give no meaning to it. And as the folk wisdom speaks – the roots of fear hide in ignorance. The meaning of death also shows burying traditions. Our ancients showed respect to a dead man by putting expensive clothes, things, animals and even humans to graves. They believed in life after death and emphasized it with great ceremonies. When Catholicism came to our culture burying traditions have changed but nevertheless it remained very important in humans’ life cycle. It proves the importance of priest’s participation in funeral. I have already mentioned World Wars. As it is the tragedy of the whole mankind, we can not judge about significance of death from this point of view. Nowadays things change very fast and it is hard to decide how people think about things. By the way Andrew Greeley said: “since the fall of socialism in Eastern Europe there has been a significant increase in religious faith in Hungary, Slovenia, East Germany, and the Soviet Union, particularly in matters of religious faith like belief in God, life after death, heaven, hell, and religious miracles.” (Society, Mar/Apr2001, Vol. 38 Issue 3, p32, 6p). Proving this I should say I was surprised one day by the Mass in the Catholic Church – there were lots of young people, they were singing, it looked as if they liked it very much to be in church, to participate in Mass. It was no doubt for me that they really believe in God who says that death is an important period in human’s existence. But there is another question about believing in God and meaningful death. It happens very often that a man who lost his friend, beloved person in early childhood when his faith in something was just beginning to develop does not believe in God, hates death because of some unfairness, offense. He can not go to a funeral, he laughs at those who suffer because of somebody’s death. He says he does not understand people who give some meaning to death. But it is just a defensive reaction. He denies death because he does not want to remember early childhood’s horrible experience. Lately I have been to a couple of funerals. People who died were not very close to me. Still their death touched me. As I looked at dead people’s relatives, friends I realized that this event is very hard to experience. It seemed that they lost the ground under their feet, they looked so lost as if they did not know how they were going to live any longer. But still in such a sad situation they believed that for a man who died will be easier to live “there”. They wanted to say goodbye to their friend, relative and I even heard one woman saying that she hopes to see him in the better world. That was the most convincing argument that she believes in the meaning of death. I would like to say that nobody should give up in believing in life after death. People should believe in death as in a one step in the better human’s life. In nowadays when social, economic conditions are very unfavorable old people who have to little time to change something must have hope in case they could live their last days cheerfully, hopefully. But it is one problem with it – people are too afraid in death. Let us cope with this problem, let us give a hopeful meaning to death and let us live more joyful!
Letter of Apology
2009-12-22
Letter of Apology – sample Dear Mr Smith, In response to (atsakydamas) your letter regarding the unsatisfactory service that you received when renting a car on the 20th July, I would like to begin by giving you my sincere apologies for the inconvenience that you experienced. Firstly, the problem of being given the wrong car. Needless to say a smaller one occurred because the original car that had been booked for your had not been returned by the time you arrived. Unfortunately, the person who had rented the car prior to you, had not adhered (tvirti laikytis) to the rental period originally agreed and as a result was two day’s late in returning it. We were unable to contact him and therefore had to provide you with another vehicle. All of our four door models were at that time rented out, and rather than not providing you with any car at all, we were forced to provide a smaller two-doors model instead. As regards, the problem encountered with (susidurti) the engine and the wind-screen wipers, these were unfortunate mishaps (nelaimingas nutikimas) that could not have been before rental. Each time a car is returned to us, it automatically undergoes (patirti) a rigorous (tikslus, kruopstus) inspection before being given an inspection pass sheet. Our records show that this particular car had passed each inspection stage successfully which leads myself and the mechanics concerned to believe that the problems occurred after the car had been rented to you. This is truly a regrettable occurrence. Please, allow me to offer you 100 $ by way of compensation and to contribute towards (aukoti, duoti) the cost of your train ticket. In addition to this, I would like also to offer you our newest model, a luxurious four-door, rover for a six-day rental period at a time most convenient for you. I hope this offer will make up for the distressing journey you encountered, and will restore your confidence in our company as a customer-friendly organization. May I apologise again for this inconvenience. Meanwhile, I look forward to hearing from you to arrange a suitable date for renting our courtesy (pgarbumas) car. Yours sincerely, Mr j. Robins
1254. Klaipeda was granted Lübeck City Right. 1298. Because of Klaipeda’s instability determined by conflict between Lithuanian and German knights, the bishop of Kur6as moved his residence from Klaipeda to Pilten. 1328. According to the agreement of the German Order in Prussia and Livonia, Klaipeda and its surroundings were transmitted to the German Order in Prussia and later became a part of Prussia Duchy and Kingdom. 1455. Klaipeda was occupied by the Samogitians for the first time. 1525. During Reformation in Prussia, a the Lithuanian Church was established. It enabled the Lithuanian community to consolidate beside the German community. Little by little, Klaipeda started to take the traits of a multi-cultural city. 1540. A fire devastated a large part of the city. 1605. The famous German poet Simon Dach was born. In honour of the poet the sculpture of Anicke was put on the square of Theatre and has become the symbol of the Klaipeda city. 1629-1635. Klaipeda was ruled by the Swedes.
Klaipėda
2009-12-22
As the gateway to breathtakingly beautiful and dunes and quaint fishing village, Klaipeda is used as a launch pad rather than as a final destination. It is easy to reach Nida, Juodkrante on the lovely Curanion spit Palanga, a summer-time pleasure town to the north. While the surrounding areas are inarguably more interesting, Klaipėda shouldn’t be completely avoided. Its Old Town is charming and there are a few interesting museums to see. Take time to see the sights there before you rush headlong to the Baltic Sea Beaches: In summer pack up your sunscreen and join the crowds on the beach. From Klaipeda try the fallowing or head north to the beach resort of Palanga or take the ferry across the lagoon to Neringa instead. If you want to sleep at the beach, check out. Keep an eye out for signs designating who gets to use which beach: women-only, men-only and general beach. Nude sunbathing is allowed on the single-sex beaches. Memel:The old, German name for the city harks to the 13 th century, when knights of the Teutonic Order first came to the area, and may be a corruption “Nemunas”, the river that empties into the Curonian Lagoon. Although populated by both Germans and ethnic Lithuanians (even some Latvians) the area became a part of Lithuania only 1923. The name “Memel” is still in use in many German-language publications, which may also include the German street names, to aid the many German tourists who come to the area each year in search of their family roots. To avoid confusion we use the Lithuanian name Klaipėda and note “Memel” where historically appropriate. Archaeological evidence reveals that this area was once densely populated by the Balts, ancestors to Lithuanians. From the 9th century, their lands were perpetually raided by the Vikings. From the 13th century, the site suffered new invasions by German feudal lords and the Teutonic Order. In a move to consolidate its governance over the territory, in 1252 the Order erected a castle on the delta of the river Dane, named it Memelburg and used it to control the strait between the mainland and the Curonian Spit. After this, Lithuania's main waterway trade route via the Nemunas river to the Curonian Lagoon, Baltic Sea and so to Gotland and Scandinavia was sealed shut. Klaipeda denied their true identity for ages. This situation only changed with the Treaty of Versailles after World War I, which took the territory from Germany and temporarily placed it under French control. In 1923, the Lithuanian government seized control of the Klaipëda region from the French, the region was soon recognized a part of Lithuania by the international community. Klaipeda today - an Ancient Town and a Modern City .Klaipëda has a population of more than 206,000 and is vital to Lithuania's economy as the country's main seaport. Klaipeda has developed into a modern city, with the characteristic quays and warehouses of a port, and with clusters of old German fachwerk buildings. The city centre has an eclectic mixture of buildings in various styles, including the old City Hall, the neo-gothic Post Office, the former Louise Gymnasium, the theatre and some private houses. The old town itself is laid out in a rectangular network of streets dating from the 13th to 15th centuries, where it is still possible to see remains of the old castle and citadel, sections of the castle towers, ramparts, bastions, ditches and other medieval defenses. At Kopgalis, a restored fortress houses a Marine Museum, Aquarium, and dolphinarium. Port:Klaipeda is an attractive transit port, connecting the main transportation corridors between the East and the West. It is the most northern ice-free Baltic seaport. Harbour waters do not freeze even at -25°C. The depth of the harbour waters at the northern part of the port quays is 17 meters. Klaipeda has a number of advantages over other ports in the region for transit: it has excellent road links with the only motorway standart road in the Baltic States linking a port complex to the countries of the former Soviet Union Young, pushing, liberal, open, tolerant, bright, ambitious, and perhaps a bit crazy - these are the words that are most often used to describe the city of Klaipeda. Namely these epithets is a key for those who strive to unriddle the secret of Klaipeda's unique, for those who try to realize how, in comparatively short period of time, Klaipeda, being grey and undistinguished industrial city, could become one of the leaders of the country, and now it is reasonably titled the capital of Western Lithuania. So, is Klaipeda still a province? Vilnius, standing high above is likely to say YES. However, hard working, ambitious and optimistic residents of Klaipeda have other o pinion. Moreover, they are sure, that after Lithuania will have become a full member of the European Union, Klaipeda will not be rejected for sure There is hardly anyone who would decide to challenge the fact that Klaipeda, having celebrated its 750th anniversary on August 1, 2002, in the recent decade surpassed the second largest Lithuanian city Kaunas in many fields and has already become a serious competitor for the capital Vilnius. Today, Klaipeda and its region receive not only foreign and local capitals, but also the brains of the country Klaipeda - city of success The majority of Klaipeda residents, who celebrated the 750th anniversary of the city on August 1, 2002, claim that they are happy and they are not going to move to any other city.
Anglų kalba  Pateiktys   (7,62 kB)
His neighbors watched him making various things and thought he would probably become a well-known clock maker. They thought thus because he had already made a clock which his neighbors had never heard of before. It worked by water. Isaac also made a sundial. The water clock could tell the hour in the house and the sundial outside. When he grew older he took a considerable interest in mathematics. Though Isaac never lost his manual skill his ability as a mathematician and a physicist was the most important in his life. His first physical experiment was carried out in 1658, when he was sixteen years old. Wishing to find out the strength of the wind during a storm, he jumped against and before the wind and by the length of his jump he could judge the strength of the wind. Thus he was searching out the secrets of nature and could find out difficult things in simple ways. When Isaac was fourteen years old, his mother took him from school to help her on the farm at Woolthorpe, where she lived with three other children - Isaac's brother and two his sisters. After two years working on the farm his mother sent him again to school to prepare for the University. On June 5, 1661, Newton entered the University of Cambridge where he studied mathematics. He became famous when he made a number of important contributions to mathematics by the time he was twenty-one. Then he began studying the theory of gravitation. In 1665, when he saw an apple fall from a tree he began wondering what force made the apple fall. Isaac was thinking about the earth's gravitation when the Great Plague raged in London and he was sent home from Cambridge because of this plague. In that quiet period of almost two years he finished considering his discoveries which had perhaps the most far-reaching effect in the whole history of science: the method of fluxions, decomposition of light and the law of gravitation. As a young man at Cambridge Newton had read with great interest the writings of Galileo, he knew the geometry of Descartes, and he had already partly worked out the methods of calculus, which he called the method of fluxions. So then he began to think "of gravity extending to the orb of the moon", as he wrote, he immediately put this idea to the test of calculation. For some years he studied light, in which subject alone his work was enough to place him in the first ranks among men of science. Newton performed many experiments with light and found that white light was made up of rays of different colours. He invented the reflecting telescope, which was very small in diameter, but magnified objects to forty diameters. Newton developed a mathematical method which is now known as the Binomial Theorem and also differential and integral calculus. In 1669 he was appointed professor and began lectures on mathematics and optics at Cambridge. Isaac Newton died in 1727 at the age of 85. He was buried with honours, as a national hero. It was the first time that national honours of this kind had been accorded in England to a man of science. Isaac was a great man who helped a lot for all world scientists. Philosophers are often absent-minded. Isaac Newton was a great scientist but he was also a philosopher and he was often as absent-minded as his colleagues all over the world. One day a man came to see Newton, but he was busy in his study and nobody was allowed to disturb him. Then visitor sat down in the dinning-room to wait for the philosopher. A little later Newton's wife came in and placed a covered dish on the table, telling the visitor that it was her husband's dinner. When she had left, the visitor lifted the cover and ate the whole boiled chicken, because he was very hungry. Now in the dish were a lot of small bones. When Newton's wife came in again, he apologized for what he had done, but she told him not to worry because another boiled chicken is in the kitchen. While she was fetching it, Newton came into the dinning-room and lifted the cover of the dish. When he see the bones, he turned to the visitor and said with a smile, "See how absent-minded we philosopher are! I quite forgot I had already my dinner". Then his wife came in with another dish. When the matter was explained, everybody had a good laugh.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (7,03 kB)
India
2009-12-22
India One of the most striking features about India, which any foreign traveler must appreciate, is the size and diversity of this country. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of size, with a total landmass of 3,287,590 sq km. Located in South Asia, it has land boundary of 14,107 km with its neighbours [Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, Burma, Nepal and Bhutan] and a coastline of 7,000 km, which stretches across the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean. India is a country of both diversity and continuity. It is a creative blend of cultures, religions, races and languages. The nation's identity and social structure remain protected by a rich cultural heritage that dates back at least 5,000 years, making India one of the oldest civilisations in the world. One of the fundamental components of Indian culture, vital for your business organisation to succeed, is an understanding of the traditions and ways of communicating with others that form the basis of India's society. It is advisable to schedule your appointment at least a couple of months in advance. If you are making your appointments before coming to India, do emphasize that you will be in India for a short period of time, if this is the case. It is also useful to reconfirm your meeting a few days before the agreed upon date. Do be prepared for last minute changes in the time and place of your meeting. It is useful to leave your contact details with the secretary of the person, so that, in case there are changes, you can be informed. Formal or informal communication: • In general, people are addressed by their name [without the prefix] only by close acquaintances, family members, or by someone who is older or superior in authority. • Do use titles wherever possible, such as “Professor” or “Doctor”. If your Indian counterpart does not have a title, use “Mr”, “Mrs”, or “Miss”. • Do remain polite and honest at all times in order to prove that your objectives are sincere. • Don't be aggressive in your business negotiations – it can show disrespect. Behavior: • The head is considered the seat of the soul. Never touch someone else’s head, not even to pat the hair of a child. • Beckoning someone with the palm up and wagging one finger can be construed as in insult. Standing with your hands on your hips will be interpreted as an angry, aggressive posture. • Whistling is impolite and winking may be interpreted as either an insult or a sexual proposition. • Greet by pressing your palms together and bow slightly. Say “Namaste” (nah-mah-stay). • Among the younger urban Indians, a 'Hello' or 'Hi' with a wave of the hand is also an acceptable form of greeting when making informal contact. • Talking to a woman who is walking alone is not advisable, since it is likely to be seen as a proposition or other inappropriate gesture. • Allow women to proceed first. • Ignore beggars. • Respect age and seniority. • The comfortable distance to be maintained during an interaction is much closer in India than in most Western countries. In general, a distance of about 2 or 2 ½ feet is seen as comfortable. However, since India has very high population density, in public spaces [e.g., public transport, a queue, etc.], don't be surprised if you find people almost rubbing against you.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (10,01 kB)
How ballet can change your life Take some young people from the most disadvantaged areas in the West Midlands. Challenge them to perform 'Romeo & Juliet' as a ballet. Film every ouch, fall and tear. Present it as a TV documentary and see them performing live in Birmingham! Ballet Hoo! Is not a competition. There were no rounds of auditions, no elimination process and no search for an overall winner. Over 18 months the Ballet Hoo! Project combined ballet and the arts, fitness, personal development training and life coaching to around 100 young people to develop skills to help them better their lives. Included in the cast was 19 year-old Alethea from Smethwick. She says: "I found the whole process challenging but at the same time very rewarding. I owe everyone a whole lot for the skills I have gained and will carry with me into later life." Tybalt wrestles with the crowd This version of Romeo and Juliet, developed by Kenneth Macmillan, meant a grueling rehearsal schedule for the untrained teenagers and the Birmingham Royal Ballet professionals as they worked together - and even adapted certain scenes. They performed at the Birmingham Hippodrome in front of a packed audience on Thursday 28 September, and were filmed for the final Channel 4 documentary.The project seems to have inspired everyone involved, and the success stories are already arriving. Linden, who plays Tybalt, says: "I have recently been accepted by the National Youth Theatre and greatly enjoy acting. I hope to continue performing."The project was a partnership between Birmingham Royal Ballet, Youth at Risk and Channel 4 - who have been filming the teens along their journey. There are still a couple of the documentaries to be screened 'Ballet Changed My Life: Ballet Hoo!':
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (39,18 kB)
Holidays in Palanga
2009-12-22
I want to tell about my ideal holidays. I am going to write about summer holidays in Palanga. One day I and my friends decided that enough to sit at home and need to do something interesting. So we decided to go to Palanga. Our group was composed from four people: I, my boyfriend, his brother and cousin. We packed lagguages, sat to the car and after five hours we were in Palanga. . We rented a flat, brought all the things inside and went to the beach. The beach was crowded. We lied on the warm sand and started to sunbathe. Sun was very warm and it was so good! Sea was very quied and we decided to go to swim. The water was cold but we swam, played and splashed as if it was warm. In the evening we came back from the beach, and then we all had a shower and went to the town. Our stomaches were growling with hunger. We went into the cafe to have a dinner. When we got full we went for a walk into Basanavičius alley. There was a lot of funfairs. We went to the horror room, after that to the big wheel, witch turned as very fast. It was so exciting! After this dispots we went to the club. There our group drank some cocktails and went to dance. Some hours later we all went back to the flat and quickly fall to sleep. Next day we woke up and saw that the rain was getting to start. So we decided to stay into flat and to think what to do in the evening. But in the evening was raining too so we just went to the seaside to see the sunrise. We didn’t bored. In the flat we played with cards and witch from as had lose that had to do a work. It was funny. Some successive days our group spent all time in the beach or in the dene, in the evening – in town’s clubs. Together we danced, wollowed, met a lot of friendly, accommodating maybe and some strange people. We were in Palanga all week. Every day brought me something new and interesting. Last day my boyfriend met his cousins so half day we communicated with them, about nightfall we packed and leaved the town. Ridding home my boyfriend’s brother and cosin slept, I and my boyfriend was talked about all time, witch we spent in resort. We were happy that deviced this journey. That week we four forgot homes, funny spent all time and didn’t think that summer is going to past. When we came home was very late. This summer we want to go to the seaside too. I hope we will have the same much fun and pleasure.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,52 kB)
Christmas is a Lithuanian national holiday. On the eve of Christmas people has a family supper, they don't meat, only fish, fruits and berries. Everybody is waiting for Christ to be born. Some people enjoy themselves on the new year's day. On the eve of New Year they have a party at home, or go the restaurants, visit their friends. The New Year tree is decorated for the Christmas or New Year. The day of Lithuanian's independence is on the 16 of February. Since 1928 Lithuanian's people marks this day every year by paying tribute to those who gave their lives for the people's happiness. For many years after World War the second this holiday was forbidden. Since 1989 it again becomes the national wide holiday in your country. It's a non-working day. The 11 of March is also a very important day for your country. Mother's Day is celebrated on the 1st Sunday of May. The member of family honour mother giving flowers, presents to her on that day. The 1st of November is day of commemorating the dead usually on All Saints Day. People lay flowers on dear people and honour their memory by observing a minute's silence. In spring we celebrate the Easter Day. The tradition of Easter Day is to colour eggs for Easter table. There are some other holidays in Lithuania, but I tried to discuss the most popular.
Global Warming
2009-12-22
Global Warming has many threats on the climate and even the health of the people on this planet. Some of these threats include the altering of crop seasons and even effect the way organisms survive on the planet. The first thing I think I should discuss when talking about global warming is what causes it to occur. Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, which are known as greenhouse gases, all build up in the atmosphere of the earth. All these gases make it so that it becomes harder for the radiation that the sun shines into the atmosphere to escape. The heat continues to build up and this is what causes the temperatures to increase. I know this seems like the temperatures increase massively but in the last hundred years the average temperature of the Earth has gone up between 0.8 and 1.0 degrees farenheight. Also in the last fifteen years, we have had the ten warmest years in record. Global Warming also helps the Earth and it has been for many years. Without global warming, the Earth’s temperature would be a lot lower than the 60-degree average. Unfortunately due to there being many more harmful “greenhouse gases” being placed into the atmosphere, instead of the temperature staying at a constant, its rising. What are many of the dangers of the Earth’s temperature rising? First of all it cause many of the glaciers that are floating in the Arctic and Greenland to melt. This in turn causes the sea levels to rise around the world. In the last hundred years alone the seas around the planet have risen anywhere from four to ten inches. I know it does not sound like a massive change but being able to raise all the seas in the world a whole ten inches is a huge problem. Sea levels also continue to rise is because the hotter temperature cause the ocean water to expand. An example of the sea level causing problems could happen on a little Native Island in the middle of an Ocean. On these islands usually where native tribes live, if the sea level rises three fourths of a meter then half of the island will sink. This could happen in many different islands around the world and if the water keeps on rising as it is, then farming land near the seashores will be flooded and the crops will be destroyed and many farmers will be left without much to live off of. The melting of the glaciers are also causing some problems in the Himalayas. Many of the tips of the mountain’s in that area. Massive flooding and rivers that are well above their normal levels are threatening the crops and homes in the area. Many of the locals that live in the area and many of the scientists that are surveying the area are saying that the glaciers are melting at a phenomenal rate. Another danger that comes with the changing of the climate is that the increased heat causes more evaporation to occur in the hotter climates. This causes there to be more precipitation in many other climates that are not used to handling massive rainfalls. The increased rainfall also leads to speeding up the process of the sea levels rising. Health is also something that becomes threatened because of global warming. Heat becomes a huge factor in the health of humans, especially the elderly. Incidents such as heat stroke head exhaustion and diseases increase drastically. The heat makes it possible for mosquitoes and other insects to transmit diseases. This is something that happened in New York during this summer. A very rare disease called St. Louis Emphyitis (spelling?) that would spread in puddles of water that mosquitoes would drink out of due to the heat. These mosquitoes would then bite humans and infect them with this disease. I don’t recall how many people, if any died due to this, but it did cause a bit of a panic in the New York Metropolitan area. Heat is not the only weather problem. Global Warming doesn't only increase temperatures in hot areas. It also decreases temperatures in cold areas. An example of this has been the cold spell that struck the Midwest. In Montana, temperatures plummeted to 30 degrees below and stayed there. The coldest weather ever recorded plagued our country's heart for over three weeks and still hasn't returned too normal. A related incident has been the blizzards of the East Coast. Some places in New York State got over twenty feet of snow. So what is in store for Earth in the future? Possible nothing. There are many people that believe global warming is nothing more than the normal rise of temperature around the world. So if this is the case, we have nothing to really worry about. Unfortunately, this scenario of normal raise in temperature might not be the case. If it isn’t, Scientists estimate that the global temperature will rise between five and nine degrees by the middle of the 21st century accompanied by a sea-level rise of one to four feet. Once the temperature reaches a certain threshold, the polar ice caps will began to melt. While those living in the Arctic may find that a nice surprise, the implications for the rest of the world are serious. Even a partial melting of the polar ice caps will cause sea levels to rise so much as to completely wipe out most coastal cities. This includes such big cities such as San Francisco and New York. Those cities that are not totally wiped out by the water will eventually be hit with hurricanes much more severe than any other one in history. Of course, inland cities are not safe either. Rather than surging seawaters and hurricanes, they will face drought. So what can be done in order to keep from all of that from happening? We need to stop putting so much pollution in to the air. No matter what there will always be a little bit of Carbon Dioxide omitted into the atmosphere. If we could just limit all the coal and fossil fuels that we burn, there will not be so much “greenhouse gases” and it would keep all of that from happening so quickly. There have also been many attempts by the United States Presidents Administrations in order to help slow down the effect. In my lifetime I know that I won’t see anything too drastic happen due to global warming, but there is a chance that my children and grandchildren will.
Genetic engineering
2009-12-22
It is estimated that humans have between 50,000 to 100,000 different genes; some of them are linked to particular diseases and conditions. Scientists have now identified nearly 4000 conditions that are limited to single defects in a person’s genetic code. Researchers all around the world are currently engaged in “The human genome project”, which aims to identify and define the function of every gene to be found in the human body. Through this they hope to locate errant genes, thereby getting a better understanding of every disease that is genetically transmittable and if possible find a cure for it. Genetic engineering, where by the defective gene sequence is cut and remodeled, is one route scientists might take. At present genetics can be a reliable predictor of who is likely to develop a particular fatal illness. Many feel that this information has the potential to cause as much harm as good, among the 10 percent of the population who may be affected. Some say that people would not be able to cope with the knowledge that they were likely to contract a terminal illness, but genetics argue that everyone has the right to know so that they could plan the rest of their lives. Some women who have been told that they are likely to develop breast cancer have chosen a surgery to remove the breast in order to increase their chances of survival. Genetic engineering is big business, and many experiments take place on animals. Fruit flies have been produced that they have extra eyes on their wings and legs; two years ago scientists grew an ear in a test tube and then transplanted on a laboratory mouse without immune system in order to see if it would be rejected. Harvard University has even patented its own mouse known as “nocuous” which has been genetically manipulated to develop cancer. Imutran, a Cambridge-based biotechnology firm, have produced a pig that is transgenic, from which they hope to be able to supply donor organs such as hearts that are in short supply for transplantation. The revelation that scientists at Cambridge University have successfully transplanted the hearts from genetically altered pigs into monkeys is the most wonderful news to have emerged from the world of medicine fro more than a decade. We are all to familiar with the bad side of science – here is a cause for being happy. The implications are stunning. We are witnessing the forward in human happiness. The chance now exists that hundreds of thousands of people, who are waiting for heart, liver and kidney transplants and would die because of the lack of donors, will now live. Suffers from many other diseases will also face hope. Not only will all those who need these major organ transplants be treated but whole new therapies will emerge. Many cancers, for example are now treated by chemotherapy or radiotherapy but in future it might be safer and more effective to just transplant the affected organ. Possibilities are nearly endless and truly amazing. Whole new era of health and longevity is now downing. Names of diseases: Appendicitis, bronchitis, cancer, chicken-pox, constipation – vidurių užkietėjimas, diabetes, diarrhoea – viduriavimas, hay fever – šienligė, hepatitis, indigestion – skrandžio skausmai, flu, insomnia – nemiga, leukaemia, measles – tymai, mumps – kiaulytė, tonsillitis – angina. Shortened one: Genetic engineering A general term for the direncted manipulation of genes, and usually used synonymously with genetic manipulation or genetic modification. A wide range of technologies are involved in this, but most involve the recombinant DNA techniques. Genetic engineering falls into several different categories depending on what is being engineered. Bacteria, yeast. This is ‘traditional’ genetic engineering (over 10 years old). Using recombinant DNA techniques genes are put into microorganisms to make them produce something we want, be it insulin, better beer or protein for food. Animals. Genetically engineered animals are usually called transgenetic animals. They are produced by a combination of fertilization techniques and DNA technology and produce animals that pass on their genetic modification to their offspring. Plants. Sometimes called transgenetic plants. They are created through the use of plant cloning technologies, which involve growing plants from isolated plant cells. Humans. Although the genetic engineering methods applicable to cows or mice are, in theory, applicable to humans, they have not been yet applied for obvious ethical reasons. Some experiments treating disease have been performed: these do not modify the germ cells. This is called gene theraphy rather than more public allarming term genetic engineering.
Most of the evidence bearing on the inheritance of intelligence is derived from studies correlating IQs between persons of various degrees of genetic relationship. Although genetic determinants of intelligence are strong the results indicate that environment is also important. Note that when siblings are reared together – in the same home environment – IQ similarly increases. Other studies have shown that the intellectual ability of adopted children is higher than would be predicted on the basis of their natural parents’ ability. In the absence of better-controlled studies, a reliable estimate of heritability is not possible. Heredity clearly has an effect on intelligence, but the degree of this effect is uncertain. It is probably less influential than some researchers have claimed but not completely nonexistent, as others have claimed. Most probably, intellectual ability is determined by a number of genes whose individual effects are small but cumulative. The environmental conditions that determine how an individual’s intellectual potential will develop include nutrition, health, quality of stimulation, emotional climate of the home, and type of feedback elicited by behavior. Head Start Programs Because children from underprivileged families tend to fall behind in cognitive development even before they enter school, efforts have been made to provide more intellectual stimulation for these children during their early years. In some programs, special teachers visited the children at home several times a week to play with them. They provided the kind of intellectual stimulation that children in upper-class homes usually receive from their parents. The visiting teachers also taught the parents how to provide the same kinds of activities for their children. In general, the results of these early education programs have been promising. Children who have participated in such programs score higher on entering school and tend to be more self-confident and socially competent than children who have not received special attention. Studies correlating IQs between persons with varying degrees of genetic relationship show that heredity plays a role in intelligence. Estimates of heritability vary, however; such environmental factors as nutrition, intellectual stimulation, and emotional climate of the home will influence where a person’s IQ will fall within the reaction range determined by heredity.
Friendship
2009-12-22
Friendship is above reason, for, though you find virtues in a friend, he was your friend before you found them. It is a gift that we offer because we must; to give it as the reward of virtue would be to set a price upon it, and those who do that have no friendship to give. If you choose your friends on the ground that you are virtuous and want virtuous company, you are no nearer to true friendship than if you choose them for commercial reasons. Besides, who are you that you should be setting a price upon your friendship? It is enough for any man that he has the divine power of making friends, and he must leave it to that power to determine who his friends shall be. For, though you may choose the virtuous to be your friends, they may not choose you; indeed, friendship cannot grow where there is any calculated choice. It comes, like sleep, when you are not thinking about it; and you should be grateful, without any misgiving, when it comes. So no man who knows what friendship is ever gave up a friend because he turns out to be disreputable. His only reason for giving up a friend is that he has ceased to care for him; and, when that happens, he should reproach himself for this mortal poverty of affection, not the friend for having proved unworthy. For it is inhuman presumption to say of any man that he is unworthy of your friendship, just as it is to say of any woman, when you have fallen out of love with her, that she is unworthy of your love. In friendship and in love we are always humble, because we see that a free gift has been given to us; and to lose that humility because we have lost friendship or love is to take a pride in what should shame us. We have our judgments and our penalties as part of the political mechanism that is forced upon us so that we may continue to live; but friendship is not friendship at all unless it teaches us that these are not part of our real life. They have to be; and we pay men, and clothe them in wigs and scarlet, to sit in judgment on other men. So we are tempted to play this game of judgment ourselves, even though no one has paid us to do it. It is only in the warmth of friendship that we see how cold a thing it is to judge and how stupid to take a pleasure in judging; for we recognise this warmth as a positive good, a richness in our natures, while the coldness that sets us judging is a poverty. Just as our criticism of a work of art begins only when we have ceased to experience it, so our criticism of our friends begins only when we have ceased to experience them, when our minds can no longer remain at the height of intimacy. But this criticism is harmless if we know it for what it is, merely the natural reaction, the cold fit that comes after the warm, and if we do not suppose that our coldness is wiser than our warmth. There are men who cannot be friends except when they are under an illusion that their friends are perfect, and when the illusion passes there is an end of their friendship. But true friendship has no illusions, for it reaches to that part of a man's nature that is beyond his imperfections, and in doing so it takes all of them for granted. It does not even assume that he is better than other men, for there is egotism in assuming that. A man is your friend, not because of his superiorities, but because there is something open from your nature to his, a way that is closed between you and most men. You and he understand each other, as the phrase is; your relation with him is a rare success among a multitude of failures, and if you are proud of the success you should be ashamed of the failure. There is nothing so fatal to friendship as this egotism of accounting for it by some superiority in the friend. If you do that you will become a member of a set, all, in their assertion of each others' merits, implying their own, and all uneasy lest they are giving more than they get. For if you insist upon the virtues of your friend, you expect him to insist upon your virtues, and there is a competition between you which makes friendship a burden rather than a rest. Criticism then becomes a treachery, for it implies that you are beginning to doubt these superiorities upon which your friendship is supposed to be based. But when no superiorities are assumed, criticism is only the exercise of a natural curiosity. It is because a man is your friend, and you like him so much and know him so well, that you are curious about him. You are in fact an expert upon him, and like to show your expert knowledge. And you are an expert because in the warmth of friendship his disguises melt away from him, and he shows himself to you just as he is. Indeed, that is the test of friendship and the delight of it, that because we are no longer afraid of being thought worse than we are we do not try to seem better. We know that it is not our virtues that have won us friendship, and we do not fear to lose it through our vices. We have reached that blessed state of being nearer to heaven than anything else in this life, in which affection does not depend upon judgment; and we are like gods, who have no need even to forgive, because they know. It is a rare state, and never attained to in its perfection. We can approach it only if we know what friendship is and really desire it, and especially if we admire the man who is a friend without ever wondering at his choice of friends or blaming him for his faithfulness to them whatever evil they may do.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (5,81 kB)
One of my favourite thing is poetry which helps me to understand the outside world, brings to my mind the strength of the human spirit, the beauty of man. Poetry helps me to educate myself. When I have some spare time I create poems too. I’m going to publish my creative work in the future. But I know I must work very hard if I want to charm my readers. I wont to appeal to people’s hearts & minds of people, to their feeling & ideals. I’m also interested in architecture so I like to visit the places where I can see how people lived in the past, old buildings, castles. I like Gediminas castle, which foundation is guarded by the “Iron wolf” legend, in Vilnius. The vaults Of Vilnius cathedral attract me too. The castle of Grand Duke Kęstutis in Trakai admires me very much. If you want to visit the places of interest you have to travel. And I like travelling with my family during our holidays & on weekends. We visit a lot of places in the countryside by our bikes. I think biking is even better than riding in a car because you can follow narrow trails in the fields & in the woods where there are no roads. I like ride a bike because I can hear birds sing, listen to the sounds of nature & enjoy the fresh air then. I’m interested in photography too. I always take my camera with me when I’m on holiday. I keep a photograph record of family events. I like to correspond. I have a lot of pen-friends in all over the world. I have a pen-friend in Greece & I have been corresponding for 3 years. I like listen to the radio. My favourite radio station is “Radio centras” . In my opinion this station is for people of all ages, interests & tastes. I like listening comments & discussions on current affairs, interviews with various people. I like different kind of music. The programs of “Radio centras” are followed by music, & that’s why it interests me. TV is very popular in my life. I like to watch TV in the evenings. Entertainment programs are my favourite. I like : “Šou bulvaras”, “Dviračio Šou”, “Taip & Ne”. Very often I watch films too. I don’t go to the cinema because today we can see a lot of interesting films at home. Today cinema attendance fall because many people have video recorders at home. But I like to go to the theatre because it helps me to get back my energy. It’s one of the ways of getting out of depression. In my opinion entertainment makes our life more beautiful.
Food and drink
2009-12-22
Food is any substance(medžiaga) that can be consumed (suvalgyti), including liquid drinks. Food is the main source of energy and of nutrition (maistas) for animals, and is usually of animal or plant origin. Such description you could find in encyclopedia. However, food and drink aren`t only essential substance for us, but may be a great pleasure. Of course, we should know how to choose food to be healthy and lively. In this instance.I`d like to mention popular fast food menu which items are unhealthful. To illustrate these health concerns, the 2004 documentary film Super Size Me had the director, Morgan Spurlock, eat nothing but McDonald's fast food -- and stop all exercise -- for 30 days. He gained weight and became frequently sick. So to avoid such this, you have to know The Food Pyramid which guides you to healthy eating. The Pyramid diet is very simple. Different kinds of food are placed at different levels of the pyramid. The higher up the pyramid, the less of the foods you should eat. Bread, pasta, rice, and other whole grains are at the bottom of the pyramid. These foods contain complex carbohydrates, which provide us the energy and heat. Carbohydrates should make about 50 % of your diet. Fruit and vegetables are the second level of the pyramid. These should be 30% your diet. Above fruit and vegetables are the protein-rich foods like meat, fish, milk, chesse, yoghurt. your diet. At the top of the pyramid are fat, oil, sweets and sugar. We should eat as little as possible of things at this level. These foods have damaging effect on teeth. It is also recomended to drink 6 glasses of water a day and have daily physical activities in order to be healthy and fit. In conclusion, it is not easy to eat healthy foods.However take the first step toward healthier eating and a healthier lifestyle on the very next day.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (5,66 kB)
A small number of scientists investigate ESP and other parapsychological phenomena systematically. Joseph Banks Rhine began pioneering work on ESP under carefully controlled conditions more than 50 years ago. For many observations he used a special deck of 25 cards: 5 cards of each of 5 symbols. For parapsychological studies the cards were often shuffled mechanically. Then the participant was given 25 “trials”. In studies of telepathy, the scientist chose a card and looked at it before the subject “guessed” the symbol. In research on clairvoyance, the investigator selected a card and placed it facedown on the table without looking at it. Then the participant “guessed” the symbol. For work on precognition, the subject “guessed” the symbol that would appear before the experimenter selected the card. While the number of hits among people who perform well is typically small (7 out of 25), some subjects do surprisingly well. Spontaneity and trancelike states seem to increase the magnitude of ESP effects. People who believe that ESP exists make slightly higher scores on laboratory tests than skeptics do. In the public’s mind the evidence for ESP consists primarily of personal experiences and anecdotes. Such evidence is unpersuasive in science because it suffers from many problems: 1.The replication problem is acute because most such evidence consists of one-time occurrences (for example a woman announces a premonition that she will win the lottery that day-and she does). There is no way to evaluate it because it is not repeatable. 2.The problem of inadequate controls and safeguards is decisive because such incidents occur under unexpected and ambiguously specified conditions. There is no way of ruling out such alternative interpretations as chance, faulty memories, and deliberate deception. 3.and finally the file-drawer problem is also fatal. The lottery winner who announced ahead of time that she would win is prominently featured in the news. But the thousands of others with similar premonitions who did not win are never heard from; they remain in the file-drawers. It is true that the probability of this woman’s winning the lottery was very low. But the critical criterion in evaluating this case is not the probability that she would win, but the probability that anyone of the thousands who thought they would win would do so. That probability is much higher. The same reasoning applies to precognitive dreams. We tend to forget our dreams unless and until an event happens to remind us of them. We thus have no way of evaluating how often we might have dreamed of similar unlikely events that did not occur. We fill our database with positive instances and unknowingly exclude the negative instances. Extraordinariness is a matter of degree. Telepathy seems less extraordinary to most of us than precognition cause we are already familiar with the invisible transmission of information through space. Precognition seems more extraordinary because we have no familiar phenomena in which info flaws backward in time. National polls find that about ½ of all adult Americans believe in ESP. Psychologists are a particularly skeptical group.
Education 2
2009-12-22
Some years ago secondary schools taught the same subjects, had the same organization of education. Today they are very different: some of them teach humanitarian subjects, some - science. The school curriculum, the organization of the lessons, the timing of the holidays, dressing vary from school to school. Subjects can be taught in three levels even at one school. You can take your examinations in three different levels too. Lithuanian children start attending secondary school when they are six or seven years old. They go to the primary schools which are in the kindergartens mostly. When they are ten or eleven years old they go to a secondary school. Pupils can stay at a secondary school for twelve years, but some of them leave secondary school at the end of the ninth form. They go to vocational junior colleges or manual training schools, where they can get both secondary education and the qualifications necessary for a job. Before that these pupils must take the examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Education. But not only these, all pupils must take examinations. Everybody can go to a university after graduating from a secondary school, vocational junior college or manual training school. The brightest students have a chance of studying abroad. Pupils can transfer freely from one school to another. Secondary education is free. Pupils get their textbooks free, too. But some of higher schools and universities are not free. Students who have not very good marks in their Certificates of Secondary Education can study there too. But they have to pay money. Those pupils who are not very good at learning can go to evening school. It is easier to study there. As for me I attended secondary school No.5 in Marijampolė. I start attending my school when I was six years old. I have been going to this school for twelve years now. Our school is 24 years old. It is not very large: there are about 1000 schoolchildren and about 5 teachers in it. I like my school because there are my friends in it, because my school is famous for skilled teachers. I am on a good footing with them. Some teachers are not very tolerant to schoolchildren who don’t agree with them, but most of them are very generous and nice people; I can go if I have a problem to them. So I am sad at the thought of leaving my school, teachers and class friends. It is definitely our last year at school so I have to do my best. We have a canteen, a library, some cloak rooms, a big sport hall, a school hall in our school. We have a large playing field near our school. Inside the school building we have a lot of special classrooms where different subjects are taught. The biology room is my favourite because there are many dummies in it. My favourite subjects are English, Biology and Literature. There are some clubs at our school. We have got basketball and football teams. There are some singers and a lot of dancers at our school. On Saturdays we often have dances. We always celebrate various celebrations: The Day of Valentines, The Day of liars, The Day of teachers. We have a nice egg exhibitions in spring. But the most impressive is our New Year carnival. My parents want me to be a doctor. It is their ambition, and I am planning to study medicine in Kaunas. I want to become a midwife. It’s a very responsible and significant profession. I hate having to ask my mum and dad for money. So I must study. But I don’t want to leave my family and friends. Anyway, I’m scared of living on my own in a big town. I must continue learning for the rest of my life. Education is very important in person’s life. The years when we attend at school are the happiest. Educated people are intelligent. The school year begins on the first of September and finishes in June. The school year is divided into three terms.
Dress code
2009-12-22
We would like to present for you business dress code. Of course, we know, that your knowledge about clothing is really wide, but in the lecture there were a lot of discussions about it, so we are going to explain why the dress code is so important in the offices or in another workplace. First of all, I think, that everyone knows, this old phrase: "You will never get a second chance to make the first impression”. As a business executive, you have a responsibility to send the best professional message you can be successful. Well, let‘s think about such a thing when you see a person for the first time, what eyes catch firstly. Of course, it would be clothes. It is simple, you don‘t know about that person anything else. But then you form the first impression about that person. In business workplace it‘s very important, that the first impression would be excellent, but sometimes you can do really awful impression because of your clothes and you don‘t have the second chance to show your best. Finally, that‘s why is so important to know what clothes help you to have a good success. So plan your wardrobe carefully and it will be the first step in your success. So, now Indre tell you about the business dress code trends, after that, Viktorija will say you about the women‘s business dress code, and finally Skaiste will tell you about men‘s business dress code. So now let’s follow fashion trends and how they relate the workplace. Well, in the 70s, people dressed just for success. But in the 80s, people were high styled and fashion-conscious. And in the 90s, times were more relaxed, creating an atmosphere where business casual flourished. Furthermore, it can be seen in the new millennium that what used to be just casual Fridays is turning into every day casual. Well, there are three levels of business casual: Elegant casual; Business casual; Comfortable casual; The first level is the most formal business casual, which consists of classic styles and is the closest to traditional business dress. What is more about this “elegant” level for men and women still includes the jacket in the wardrobe. So a blazer or sport coat for men is worn with a shirt (with or without a tie) or a sweater. Talking about women, the suit is worn with a sweater, blouse or knit top. The second level of business casual and probably the most widely accepted is known as smart one which consists of two-piece coordinated outfits with or without a jacket. For men, a sweater or vest worn with shirt (tie optional), of course, shirt with collar. Furthermore, blends worn with leather shoes that have leather or rubber soles. What is about a woman’s wardrobe, it consists of sweater sets, unobstructed jacket and dresses. Blouses and knit tops are worn with short or long sleeves. Shoes are low heel leather pumps. The third level of business casual, the least accepted by most businesses, is the “comfortable” level, which consists of denim jeans, t-shirts and sneakers are always worn with socks. The woman’s wardrobe is similar, but also includes jumpers and skirts in denim. As you can understand, in various periods of time fashion trends have changed a lot of; at first people dressed for success, or relax, but in the new millennium Fridays casual changed into every day casual. Finishing, I want my audience to know that there are three most important levels of business casual: elegant, business and comfortable which are really different.
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Dental caries
2009-12-22
Alternative names: dental cavities; tooth decay. Definition: A disease of the teeth resulting in damage to tooth structure. Dental caries is one of the most prevalent disorders afflicting mankind, second only to common cold. It usually occurs in children and young adults. Dental caries is a relatively recent in human history. Dental caries remain a relatively rare disease in some areas of the world. In Europe, North and South America, virtually every person is attacked at some time during his life. Tooth decay seems to be a disease of civilization possibly associated with refined foods. A lack of dental cleanliness is also closely associated with tooth decay. There are three main factors that be simultaneously for the condition to occur: ●microbial dental plaque; ●teeth susceptible to caries; ●diet that provides a frequent supply of fermentable carbohydrate Microbial dental plaque is a colorless, bacteria laden film that forms daily on the teeth. The bacteria convert all foods-especially sugar starch-into acids. The onset of carries is early in susceptible populations. Decay occurs where bacteria and foods adhere to the surface of the teeth. Many individuals with high caries susceptibility speak of inheriting “soft teeth” or that the resistance to tooth decay is strongly influenced by genetic variation in tooth composition. Prevention. Oral hygiene is the primary prevention against dental caries. This consists of personal care and professional care. The use of dental sealants is a good means of cavity prevention. Sealants are thin plastic-like coatings applied to the chewing surfaces of the molars. Symptoms and Signs: ● toothache; ● cavities. Most dental caries are discovered in the early stages during routine checkups. The surface of the tooth may be soft, pain may not be present until advanced stages of tooth decay and dental X-ray may show some cavities before they are visible. Treatment. Destroyed tooth structure does not regenerate. The progression of dental caries can be stopped by treatment. In filling teeth, the decayed material is removed by drilling and replaced with a restorative material such as silver alloy, gold, porcelain, or composite. Treatment often preserves the tooth. Dental caries- dantu eduonis Afflict – sukelti skausma Lesion – pazeidimas Refined foog – tinkamas maistas Medical condition- medicinine bukle Abscess- pulinys Restriction- apribojimas Prevent- uzkirsti kelia Dental sealant- dantu plevele Regenerative- atstatymas Preserve- saugoti Filling- plomba Alloy- lydinys Amalgam-amalgama
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Christmas in USA
2009-12-22
People also buy Christmas trees. Almost every man decorates tree in a different way. The decorations mostly are made of glass: angels, various figures, soldier and balls they also put a fire in the fireplace and puts stockings over the fire place also they put beautiful light bulbs on they’re houses and windows. Little children believe that there is Christmas Father or Santa Claus who comes down the chimney on the night of Christmas Eve and brings presents. Most families put presents around or under Christmas tree and in the stockings they put candy and these are opened on the first Christmas day in the morning. The biggest part of people thinks that Christmas is the time for families. For many families, this festival is the only time when they are all together. On the Christmas morning the tearing of wrapping paper is heard as gifts are exchanged, opened and admired. As the turkey, goose or chicken is sizzling in the oven, their delicious aroma fills all houses. The family is dressed in their best clothes; sit down to enjoy a delicious meal, which puts a smile on everyone’s face. America celebrates Christmas almost the whole week until the New Year, but the first day is extraordinary and you must spend it at home with your family members. This is the time when the warm feeling of Christmas spirit fills the home as the children play happily with their new toys and the adults relax, all family members feel closest to each other after sharing a day of love and joy.
Children rights
2009-12-22
Even in the same nation children rights were equally respected, and violated. For example in ancient Egypt one of the pharaohs ordered to kill all male, new-born Jewish children, because he thought, that the Jewish (Hebrew) people became more powerful than they, Egyptians were. According to the Bible, he said unto his people: Behold, the people of Israel Are more and mightier than we. And he said, when ye do the office Of a midwife to the Hebrew women, And see then upon the stools; If it be a son, then ye shall kill him: But if it be a daughter then she shall live. Of course, it was the roughest breaking of children rights. But in the same country, almost at the same time, small - aged prince Tuthanchathon sat on the throne. His aunt wanted to occupy the throne herself , that means to break his , as pharaoh's child's and throne heir's, rights, but this time child's rights defence worked really strongly , because Tuthanchathon was an Egyptian , not Jewish child , and , of course , pharaoh's son. The same kind of violation of children rights was in Sparta - they killed children too, but this time - for another reason. From five years age Spartans took their male children to the military trainings. And if a child was too weak for such trainings, they killed him. It’s a strict breaking of child's rights, because children can't chose, what physical or mental shape will they born. But the times were changing, so the attitude towards children rights was changing too. Masive and cruel children’s killing was stopped. Of course, that doesn't mean, that the violation of child's rights was stopped too. For example in Middle-ages in Europe parents could hand over their just - born children to abbeys , could chose them any profession they want or even to set up a marriage without asking them. Also children often had to work very hardly, and at work they had to keep up equally with adults, otherwise they were punished. But after some hundreds years passed , that kind of kind of child's neglect had vanished too , and step by step children were admitted to the circle of all people , who have full rights. Despite of such relief, children rights and their defence remains a unsolved problem. Now-a-days our civilization has reached very high levels, but it can't deal with it .We still have lots of situations, where child's rights are neglected. One of them has occurred and continues to worry world's society in China. It's linked with the number of people, who live in China, because that number increases, and already has reached more than 1.2 billion! So, in that country all families, that have underage children, must pay additional taxes. That badly worsens social situation of such families, so parents can't support their children as good as they require .Other countries are indignant at such situation. In Saudi Arabia the government even pays more then $ 20.000 to the mothers, who born children, because they respect child's rights and want the children of their country to live happily. The Constitutions of many countries contain some points about child's rights. Lithuanian Constitution has such points too .For example they say , that :" Government takes care about families , what raise up their children at home , while they are underage ". That shows that Lithuania respects child's rights too. So, we've travelled through the history from ancient times to our days. You should've mentioned that I've missed one thing, which from time to time occurred and died out during the human civilizations history. It's war. War is the exception from all rules, because it has no rules. During a war there's just one right - the right of the strongest - he can do whatever he wants, not respecting other rights, even child's rights. The best example is the Balkan war, where from illnesses, hunger and aggression die children. The United Nations Organization is really concerned about that. They proved that by establishing a fund, which is called “Help Children of Sarajevo” As you see, when wars occur, all the success that was reached during thousands of years in child’s rights protection vanishes. But when wars die out, those rights regain their former respect, that’s why wars are just rude exceptions, which can't stop the whole process. We think that history goes the right way, because there are more and more laws, confirming child's rights in lots of countries. And we are happy about the development of those laws, because living in good circumstances lets us to become freer, more intelligent and educated generation.
Cheating
2009-12-22
I take a very difficult exam. I have to study for about one week. But I do not. I read a bit every day and I feel calm, because I know I will be able to cheat. Everybody knows that, but some of my group mates study a lot. They study for themselves, for the future or because they are really interested in that subject. I am not interested at all. After the exam we find out that all students got good marks. But somebody is not satisfied or jealous, so he goes and tells the lecturer the names of those people who cheated. He tells my name too. I am very upset- not because I have cheated, but because I can trust nobody in my group. How could I be so stupid and tell that man such a simple thing… Cheating is a very popular phenomenon in our country. In other countries the prevalence of cheating differs. And it is a problem of educational system, not of students. When the disciplines are interesting and useful, students are fond of learning, not of cheating. But the worst thing is that nobody can change this system rapidly: it requires much time, money and hard work. Firstly, honors code like Groveton’s ruins the relationships between students. A student can not trust anybody and tell that he is going to cheat. That is, he has to lie to his mates that he knows a lot, that he has studied for weeks. And it is very difficult (I would say impossible) to find real friends from the university environment. For example, I would not call a friend such a man, to whom I have to lie, who can lodge a complaint against me after every test or exam. The most important thing in friendship is trust and freedom to talk, share impressions. Sometimes it is so great to tell a real friend: “That was the best cheating in my life…” In our society lots of students’ best friends are from their course. If students would have to sign an honor code, the relationships between them changed a lot. There could be no talk about marriages between group mates, because what is a marriage without trust and supporting a spouse? Or there could be another way out of such situation: to break an oath and to lodge complaints only against some students. But on the other hand, if one breaks an oath, there is no need to report about cheating at all. So what should a poor student do? Another difficulty is that the information can be not reliable. If one student hates somebody, it is natural that he tries to do harm to the object of hate. And he can say that he is cheating after every exam and test. Karen Horney says that some people are inclined to competitiveness. Such people try to damage a competitor in order to enhance their own position or glory or to keep down a potential rival. For such a man it is more important to see others defeated than to succeed himself. In universities it is natural that they would try to defeat their mates (competitors) in the easiest way- they will tell that others have cheated. And it is very difficult to check such information. I think that people can not be forced to sign such documents as honor codes, because nobody can make disgraceful people become honorable. The ones who are honorable will not cheat without signing any paper, and the ones who want to cheat, will pay no attention to what they have signed. I think that forcing to sign an honor code would insult me a bit, because I can be honorable without a code, and it is nobody’s business. It is up to me and my conscience to decide whether I will cheat or not. University is not a secondary school, where students have to learn lots of needless subjects. Almost everything that is taught at universities is necessary for the future job. Students choose a profession to study, which interests them, and so they are fond of learning and knowing a lot.
Charles Chaplin
2009-12-22
At the age of 14, Charlie became a dancer in the music hall. After some time he joined the actors group where he played the main comedy parts. In 1913 Chaplin went to the United States. There he became the world famous star. Later the actor built his own film studios and in 1920 was the producer of his owns work. Charles Chaplin worked in Hollywood till 1952. The actor had several invitations from the Academy to receive a special Academy award for his films. His most famous films are: “A dog’s life”, “The kid” (1917-1918), “The gold rush” (1925), “City light” (1931), “Modern times” (1936). His last American film, “Limelight”, was made in 1952. “A king in New York” which Chaplin made in England in 1957, reflected his bitterness towards America. Charles Chaplin made his film “A countess from Hong Kong” at the age of 77 in London in 1966. The film was not a critical or commercial success. In 1952 the famous actor went to Switzerland. People loved him as a circus clown. During the intervals of film making Charles Chaplin wrote “My autobiography”. The world famous comedian died in 1977.
Sobel was uneducated; however, he read a lot: “He had once asked him, Sobel, why you read so much? And the assistant could not answer him. Did you ever study in a college someplace? He had asked, but Sobel shook his head. He read, he said, to know”. As we can see, he was not educated at any college or university, but he educated himself by reading books. From the line 116 the narrator directly presents Sobel’s appearance: “He was a stocky man, poorly dressed, with a bald head that had once been blond, a severely plain face and soft blue eyes prone to tears over the sad books he read”. We also know the exact age of Sobel: “So what has my daughter to do with a shoemaker thirty – five years old who works for me?” At the end of the story, in line 326, Mr. Feld did an conclusion and presented Sobel’s appearance in two words: “She will never marry a man so old and ugly like you”. The characters’ qualities are presented indirectly through Sobel’s actions. Sobel is hard working assistant. There are many scenes in this short story where we can see Sobel working. Even the beginning is about his hard work: “He gave him a look, but Sobel’s bald head was bent over the last as he worked and he didn’t notice”. We can notice that he is not a materialist as he does not ask better wage: “Yet his conscience bothered him for not insisting that the assistant accept a better wage than he was getting, though Feld had honestly told him he could earn a handsome salary if he worked elsewhere, or maybe opened a place of his own”. However, in line 306 the real reason of his hard working appears: “‘Why do your think I worked so long for you?’ Sobel cried out.’ For the stingy wages I sacrificed five years of my life so you could have to eat and drink and where to sleep?’ ‘Then for what?’ shouted the shoemaker. ‘For Miriam’ he blurted – ‘for her.’ These lines show us that Sobel loves shoemaker’s daughter Miriam. Also, Sobel managed to combine his hard work with his hobby which is reading. But reading for Sobel was not only a hobby, but also the way that he could tell his feelings to Miriam and effect her feelings as well: “ In some devious way, with his books and commentary, Sobel had given Miriam to understand that he loved her.” The last lines from 349 – 358 show us that Sobel was sure about his love, and his love was so strong that he decided to wait two years more: “But the next morning, when the shoemaker arrived, heavy – hearted, to open the store, he saw he needn’t have come, for his assistant was already seated at the last, pounding leather for his love.” One more Sobel’s character’s feature is that he is trustworthy. That we can see in line 126: “Feld could trust him with anything and did, frequently going home after as hour or two at the store, leaving all the money in the till, knowing Sobel would guard every cent of it.” To sum it up, from this character sketch of Sobel we can see that Sobel was hard working, reading a lot and loving. And that love was so important for him that he even could wait for that love as long as he had to.
Speciality The new thing that this store has is minimal inventory. Most probably many have said this before but they all still work under the old idea that all the records have to physically be in the store when the customers want to buy them. By taking the model of Apple's iTunes Store and moving it out of the home and onto the streets we can achieve a much lower inventory than is possible with a traditional musicstore. All the music would be stored on computer drives in full quality and when the customer wants to buy an album he simply requests it from the salesman who burns the album on a cd which the customer then takes with him. With this comes a much higher computer cost but that is more than balanced out by less inventory and less requirements for the store's size plus we get the added bonus of a potentially strong online presence. The stock-reducing feature of this store can be described so that no cd´s will be bought from the publishers except those that have already been sold. It would work similar to when one orders a cd from a traditional music store. The process then is that they put in an order for that particular cd which is then sent to them in the next shipment. Since they already can sell it when it comes to the store no cost of stock needs to be accredited to that particular cd and it will not degrade in value, as it remains unsold in the store. Market In all probability it will be easier to get smaller independent labels to accept this new arrangement since they are often less concerned about piracy and illegal distribution of their music. When Apple introduced its online record store with the possibility of burning song to cd it may have broken the ice for big publishers who may see this opportunity for what it really is, a big chance for them to regain some control over music distribution. According to the financial calculations presented in Appendix C we need to sell 22 cd's per day 30 days a month to get just above the break even point. That should be a reachable goal as we see with the following logic. For a store in central Reykjavik we can assume that the market size is 1800 customers. That is 10% of the population between 15 and 30. So in order to reach the breakeven point every customer needs to buy 4.4 cd’s per year, a goal that is easily within reach considering usual spending habits of young people in Iceland. A threat to this is of course the Internet and illegal downloads of music. Market size is furthermore considered under three circumstances, low, medium and high with the sales numbers 10, 40 and 100 respectively. The probability for each demand is 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1. A great factor in why low market size is thought to be most probable is the Internet and the still growing popularity of illegal downloads. Setup For a breakdown and projection of Setup cost see Appendix A. The setup for such a store is more like what one would expect from an ISP rather than a record store because servers and large data storage facilities will be prominent factors of the startup cost. Another aspect is the cost expected to be needed to ensure proper license agreements with publishers. That amount is expected to be needed for travel expenses and other costs excluding legal expenses that will arise from negotiating with the publishers about this new form of sales. Legal expenses are marked as a special cost category because of the difference in tax issues between these two factors in Iceland. Special programs will be needed in the modern store while traditional stock and bookkeeping software can be used in the traditional store. Among this special software is cd burning software, server maintenance and control as well as possible software to report sales of cd´s to the publishers but that will depend on the deals made with them, i.e. if they want secure data directly from the computer system without human interaction or if they simply want a report based on honesty for their billing purposes. In the financial calculation it has been assumed that just about all startup expenses will be covered by loans and that those loans will be fully repaid in three years. This is done to provide a horizon for the comparison. Operating Cost Operating cost projections are presented in Appendix B Operating cost for the two stores is calculated without considering inflation because it is not customary to consider inflation in such calculations. It is assumed that any change in costs will be carried directly into the prices and therefor effectively negating all consequences. The expected sale used in Replenishment of stock is 10% of the stock. This is below the breakeven point but since the breakeven analysis with NPV uses the sales as a variable this has no effect on that. The main objective with the operating cost sheet is to get a rough idea of what forms the operating expenses and approximate the amount. Legal expenses and publishing are assumed to be evenly distributed over the period while in fact they would be discrete and uneven amounts. For this preliminary analysis the even distribution is accurate enough. Payments of loans are expected to be every three months and the interest rate is 6% per year. The payments are assumed to be equal payments. Break Even Analysis When NPV is calculated it is assumed that the business is worthless at the end of three years and therefor we get no return at the end of that period. Interest rate is set to approximately 25% per year or exactly 2% per month. This interest rate is our interest demand, that is the interest we expect to be able to get if we invest differently. When establishing the Break Even point NPV analysis is used with the Goal seek option in Excel. The NPV is set to 0 and Goal seek adjusts the sales to find the corresponding amount. This is different from finding the breakeven for individual months or the sum of the period in general because this takes into account the possible earning of the money if it was invested differently. The Break Even analysis is presented in Appendix C. Results After examining the numbers we see that the modern store has a definite advantage over the traditional approach. By arranging the decision matrix and using the Maximax or MiniMax methods to determine the best possibility we get the same results, the modern store has better potential than the traditional one with regards to the NPV calculations. Furthermore if we use Expected Return, that is multiply the probabilities and return and then taking the maximum of that we get the same result. In the market section we saw a logical induction for the market share reaching and probably overtaking the breakeven point of 22cd's for modern store. The breakeven for a traditional is 59cd's and that amount we can not expect without a high demand which is considered improbable. Recommendations It is necessary before making any commitments regarding the store to first look for further information about the Apple deal. That information might be found on Internet rumor pages or magazines and newspapers covering the iTunes store. What we need to find out is any conditions that publishers put forth and the problems encountered on the way as well as how much Apple needs to pay the publishers for every song they sell, that should establish a baseline for the prices because it is unlikely that a small store like this would get a better deal than an industry giant with a phenomenal track record. A market analysis needs to be conducted. It can be as simple as sitting outside a competing record store and counting the number of people coming out of it with a bag in their hand or it can be a full third party analysis of the market. But making some kind of market research is important for further establishing the estimates of market size. With respect to the expected market size it is needed to determine the amount of cd writing equipment is needed. This is a variable with no counterpart in the traditional store but the potential of being quite expensive depending on the expectations of the stores client with regard to speed of service. It is necessary to examine many possible solutions ranging from cheap personal cd writers to more advanced professional equipment. Another such issue is the servers that store the music. They need to be able to store large amounts of data and need to serve all the data to the cd writers when it is requested. That should actually not be a big problem since modern servers have a very high bandwidth. Another issue that needs to be considered is the financial aspect. It is not very wise to finance the preparation expenses with loans, one should rather try to get venture capital or finance it in other ways. A loan can be a big burden to bear if it turns out that publishers are not willing to allow this form of store but the venture capital would simply be lost without much consequence. With venture capital the control of the store is in lost to some extent but that could be more feasible than to be stuck with payments of a loan that generated zero income.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (46,53 kB)
Business Culture
2009-12-22
Doing business in the US could be quite different from the way it is done in your home country. The greetings, dress codes, and schedules may vary from what you are habituated to. Here are some proper approaches to conduct business in a proper way in the US: Business Dressing Every individual company sets certain standards for business outfits. Usually, as a general rule, most of the large companies and organizations require a more formal dress. Most companies have a formal dress code for their particular business. Some companies may supply uniforms for some, or all of their employees. You could check with your employer whether they have any policy on dress code and what they feel is the most appropriate outfit for your position. If you choose to wear jewelry, it should be minimum and compliment your outfit. Large, flashy jewelry is usually not appropriate for a business environment. Business hours The normal business hours are Monday through Friday, 8.30 or 9.00 a.m. to 5 or 6 pm, with a 30 to 60 minute lunch break. Punctuality Being on time is a very important rule of business etiquette. Every effort should be made to arrive on time to any scheduled meetings or appointments. If you would be late for an appointment, then a call should be made announcing the expected delay. On the other hand regularly arriving late or missing appointments would have a negative impact on your business. Greetings & Introductions It is customary for business meeting with people from outside your company to begin and end with a firm handshake. Eye contact should be maintained during the handshake and whenever someone is speaking to you. During introductions, listen carefully to the pronunciation of the persons name so that you could address properly. While introducing yourself, give your full name not just the first name. You could take help of others in your company to find out when it would be appropriate to address someone by their first name only, or whether they should be addressed in a more formal manner (i.e. Mr. Robin). Avoid using nicknames until the person permits you to do so. The appropriate way of addressing someone may depend partly on his or her position in the company. For instance, it could be acceptable if you address your coworkers by their first name but not the senior officers of the company. This is a bird's eye view of the US business culture to help you assist you for your first visit. Your employers and coworkers could be of great help for you to adjust and make your work experience enjoyable and successful.
Anglų kalba  Straipsniai   (5,02 kB)
Business
2009-12-22
More and more people are beginning to open new business ventures (sumanymas). It seems like it is becoming the popular move. By opening a business there could be big profit(nauda)to be made, depending(atsizvelgiant) on the market. On the other hand, there are risks(rizika). It is said that there are two reasons why people start a business. The first reason is because they have inspiration(ikvepimas) for what they believe would be a great idea and the second is from desperation(neviltis).. There are various different ways to start a business. Not all entrepreneurs(verslininkai) begin their business by the thought of an idea. There are many other ways to go about starting a business. Buying a franchise, buying an existing company, the inventions of a product are all other ways to begin a business. People often start a business in a field that they know well. Although this is true, it is important not to limit the perspectives(perspektyva) of the kind of business to open. The areas outside of your interests may just be the right opportunity(galimybe) for you, which is why it is important to explore(istirti)other areas. This paper will talk about the general ways in which to start a new business and how to go about doing it. Included will be how to get ideas to open a business, planning out the business structure, ways to get money to start the business, getting prepared(pasiruosimas), hiring(samda the staff, and getting the word out to the public. Getting ideas to Open a Business the business idea plays a critical role in the overall(apskritai) success of the business venture chosen.. There are many considerations(pamastymu) that must be thought of before determine(nulemti) the success of an enterprise, including the entrepreneur, financing and other external forces. In order to have a good business idea it should:  satisfy personal goals and interests, (patenkinti personalo tikslus ir..)  find a success place in the market,  making sure it is possible to produce the necessary quality of the product or service,  Meet or exceed your financial goals.(atitikti ar virsyti ) In order to meet all of these criteria, it is important to complete research(uzbaigti nagrinejima) on the business idea that has been chosen. Research information can be gathered(kauptas) from various different sources(saltiniu). Some of these sources being the library, looking at existing businesses, word of mouth, reading books, watching television, going to government departments, talking to university professors etc. If the research has not been completed then it more likely that the business will become a failure(bankrotas) Planning out the business structure The one basic question facing all new business owners is “what business structure is the best for me?”. There are three main types of business structures:  sole proprietorship, (private nuosavybe)  partnership,(kompanija partneryste)  corporation. All of these different structures are different and require(reikalauja) different things to make them work. The sole proprietorship is a business that has only one owner and for the purpose of his/her own profit, the partnership is a business which has two or more people and all of the workers work as co-owners(bendra nuosavybe), and the corporation is an artificial entry with obligations(netikras iejimas su isipareigojimais Ways to Get Money to Start the Business There are various different funds available for new business ventures to try and create more jobs. Entrepreneurs are more then welcome to come into economy. To get these funds the business plan has to be completed. The funds available are for many different types of people. There are special ones for immigrant entrepreneurs, women’s entrepreneurs, and young entrepreneurs. Loans(paskola) from the government are available in several different places. The loans from the Government are mostly interest free and unsecured(negarantuotas) loans. This, in comparison(palyginus) to a bank loan, is much better for the fact that there is no interest. If the only opportunity left is the bank then it is necessary to get a low interest loan. When there is the most common questions in starting a business is: “where do I start?”. The questioner below will help answer that question for new business people. This checklist (katakogas) will be the road map for starting a business. Most business owners should use this to make sure that everything is done before the opening of the store. Prepare a business plan. Prepare a marketing plan.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (6,5 kB)
Breast Cancer
2009-12-22
Mammograms What you can expect after the mammogram: 1) The radiologist may explain your results at the time of mammogram/ ultrasound (If this is not offered, you can request it, but often you may need to schedule a consultation.) 2) The detailed report of the findings is usually sent directly to your primary or referring physician. If you want it, you may have a copy of this report. Ask the doctor who received it. 3) You will also receive a brief report by mail of the radiologist’s findings and recommendations for needed follow-up. (This report is mandated by law.) Some possible recommendations by the radiologist or primary doctor if there is a suspicious area or lump found on the mammogram: 1) Wait 3-6 months and have another mammogram to see if there are any changes 2) Referral for ultrasound which will show whether a cyst is fluid-filled or solid 3) Referral to surgeon for biopsy. (At some mammography centers the mammogram and the biopsy may be done on the same day. It depends on the capability of the particular center.) 4) Referral for a ductogram (For this procedure, the radiologist takes a very fine plastic catheter and with a magnifying glass, threads it into the duct, squirts dye into it, and takes a picture. A ductogram provides a map for the surgeon to use for a biopsy and may also show the source of your breast discharge, if you had discharge.) Possible questions to ask/things to advocate for: 1) If you have a palpable lump, the mammographer should put a marker on your breast to make sure the lump is identifiable on the film. 2) If you have calcifications, a magnification view is often taken. Sometimes this step is skipped and you are sent directly for a biopsy. (You should ask why, if this is the case, especially if surgical biopsy is recommended.) 3) If referred for biopsy, consider a second opinion of the mammogram at another center. (For some people a center that specializes in mammography is a better option.) Take your original mammography films with you. 4) How much time do I have to make a decision about what to do next? 5) Ask how many mammograms the radiologist reads in a year. The accuracy of the reading varies depending in part on the number of mammograms someone reads. 6) Check for the FDA/National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory Committee certification. It should be posted in the center. Biopsies If you need to have a biopsy, there are several types you could have. The type of biopsy depends in part on whether the lump is palpable (you can feel it) or not. If the lump can only be seen on a mammogram, it can be approached by a stereotactic fine-needle biopsy, stereotactic core biopsy, mammotome, or wire localization biopsy (see below for descriptions). These procedures use the mammogram or ultrasound to locate the lump before sampling it. If the lump is palpable, then it can also be tested with fine-needle aspiration or a core biopsy. Finally, the lump can be removed entirely with an excisional biopsy or a piece of it can be removed with an incisional biopsy.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (49,29 kB)
Avril Lavigne
2009-12-22
Rock & roll wild child Avril Lavigne hit big in summer 2002 with her spiky-fun debut song "Complicated," shifting pop music into a different direction. Lavigne, who was 17 at the time, didn't seem concerned with the glamor of the TRL-dominated pop world and such confidence allowed her star power to soar. The middle of three children in small town Napanee, Ontario, Lavigne's rock ambitions were noticeable around age two. By her early teens, she was already writing songs and playing guitar. The church choir and local festivals and county fairs also allowed Lavigne to get her voice heard, and luckily, Arista Records' main man Antonio "L.A." Reid was listening. He offered her a deal, and at 16, Lavigne's musical dreams became reality. With Reid's assistance and a new Manhattan apartment, Lavigne found herself surrounded by prime songwriters and producers, but it wasn't impressive enough for her to continue. She had always relied on her own ideas to create a musical spark and things weren't going as planned. Lavigne wasn't disillusioned, though. She headed for Los Angeles and Nettwerk grabbed her. Producer/songwriter Clif Magness (Celine Dion, Wilson Phillips, Sheena Easton) tweaked Lavigne's melodic, edgy sound and her debut, Let Go, was the polished product. Singles such as "Complicated" and "Sk8er Boi" hit the Top Ten while "I'm With You" and "Losing Grip" did moderately well at radio. Butch Walker of the Marvelous 3, Our Lady Peace frontman Raine Maida and Don Gilmore (Linkin Park, Good Charlotte) signed on to produce Lavigne's second album, Under My Skin, which appeared in May 2004. ~ MacKenzie Wilson, All Music Guide. Unapologetically original. Unabashedly in your face. Avril Lavigne's 2002 debut Let Go gave young women a defiant voice and set it to music they could rock out to. Fourteen million albums and eight Grammy nominations later, the Canadian chanteuse returns with Under My Skin but if you're expecting a whole lot of the same, you've got another thing coming. This is not a girl who rests on her laurels. Under My Skin opens with the dramatic tracks "Take Me Away" and "Together," which set the scene for the kick-ass guitars and radio-ready chorus of "Don't Tell Me," a song of willful female empowerment that picks up where "Complicated" left off. From there it's a one-two punch of three-chord guitar licks ("He Wasn't") and head-bopping optimism ("Who Knows") alongside swirling, brooding melodies ("Freak Out") and moody tracks ("Forgotten," "Nobody's Home") that reveal a darker side of Avril Lavigne. "I grew up so much in the past two years," admits the Napanee, Ontario, native. "I've been through a lot, I've learned a lot, and experienced a lot both good and bad. These songs are about all of that, and each is very personal to me." Working with producers, Butch Walker (of the Marvelous 3), Raine Maida (of Our Lady Peace), Don Gilmore (Linkin Park, Pearl Jam), Avril co-wrote the dozen introspective songs on Under My Skin in near secrecy. "I'd just come off my world tour and got back to Toronto and was writing right away," the 19-year-old says. "I had no idea what I was going to do. No one did. People wondered if I'd run out of things to write about, but it was the opposite." After a lunch date with fellow Canadian singer-songwriter Chantal Kreviazuk turned into a major chick-bonding session, Avril and Chantal sat down to write. The chemistry was ineffable. "We got together one night and all of a sudden we had a song," she says. "No one knew what I was up to, not my management, not my label." The duo got together the next night and wrote another song. "We did that for two weeks and wrote 12 songs." Momentum took over and by summer Avril was moving into Chantal and her husband Raine Maida's Malibu house to record. "I was only off my tour for a couple of weeks, and I was ready to record," Avril recalls. The California air provided a needed escape from Avril's frantic life. "It was a great time for me, living out there, being out of the public eye, and having my independence. And my friendship with Chantal evolved into one of the best I've ever had." Chantal and Avril would spend all night in the studio perfecting the songs. During the day, Avril learned the city by driving to and from the studio and where ever she needed to be. No photos, no interviews, no pressure. Eventually they recorded most of the songs in Raine's studio, and those songs appear unaltered on Under My Skin. The rest of the tracks, co-written with her guitarist Evan Taubenfeld (and one track with former Evanescence guitarist Ben Moody), were cut just up the road. "I was involved in every aspect of making this record. I'm very hands-on," she says. "I knew how I wanted the drums, the guitar tones, and the structures to be. I understand the whole process so much better this time because I've been through it. I'm really picky with my sound."
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (11,54 kB)
Automation
2009-12-22
Reasons for automation 1.high cost of labour in industrialized (and not only) societies skilled labor cost have been constantly increasing. 2.increased productivity Higher production output per hour of labour input is possible with automation than with manual operations. 3.competition The ultimate goal of a company is to increase profits. However, there are other measures that are harder to measure. Automation may result in lower prices, superior products, better labour relations, and a better company image. 5.safety Automation allows the employee to assume a supervisory role instead of being directly involved in the manufacturing task. For example, die-casting is hot and dangerous and the work pieces are often very heavy. Welding, spray painting and other operations can be a health hazard. Machines can also do these jobs more precisely and achieve better quality products. 6.reducing manufacturing lead time Automation allows the manufacturer to respond quickly to the consumer needs. Second, flexible automation also allows companies to handle frequent design modifications. Automation is also allowing organizations to move from the traditional “mass production model” to mass customisation. The traditional model of mass production involves hierarchical control. Workers repeat defined repetitious tasks under close supervision. Such a mass production model is best applied to low-cost, standardized products. Mass customisation is a model for low-cost, high-quality, customized products. It requires flexibility and quick responsiveness. People, resources ant technology are continuously reconfigured to give the customer exactly what he/she wants. The control is decentralized and managers coordinate independent, capable individuals. 7.lower costs In addition to cutting labour costs, automation may decrease the scrap rate and thus reduce the cost of raw materials. It also enables just in time manufacturing which in turn allows the manufacturer to reduce the in-process inventory. It is possible to improve the quality of the product at lower cost. Reasons for not automating 1.labour resistance People look at robots and manufacturing automation as a cause of unemployment. In reality, the use of robots increases productivity, makes the firm more competitive and preserves jobs. But some jobs are lost. On the other hand, the real cause of layoffs today is not automation or the migration of jobs because of cheap labour elsewhere. The top layoffs can be attributed mainly to competition, mergers, and government spending cuts. 2. Cost of upgraded labour the routine monotonous tasks are the easiest to automate. The tasks that are difficult to automate are ones that require skill. Thus manufacturing labour must be upgraded. 3. Initial investment cash flow considerations may make an investment in automation difficult even it the estimated rate of return is high. Higher output and increased productivity have been two of the biggest reasons in justifying the use of automation. …
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (4,08 kB)
Certainly an Englishman, it was more doubtful whether Phileas Fogg was a Londoner. He was never seen on 'Change, nor at the Bank, nor in the counting-rooms of the "City"; no ships ever came into London docks of which he was the owner; he had no public employment; he had never been entered at any of the Inns of Court, either at the Temple, or Lincoln's Inn, or Gray's Inn; nor had his voice ever resounded in the Court of Chancery, or in the Exchequer, or the Queen's Bench, or the Ecclesiastical Courts. He certainly was not a manufacturer; nor was he a merchant or a gentleman farmer. His name was strange to the scientific and learned societies, and he never was known to take part in the sage deliberations of the Royal Institution or the London Institution, the Artisan's Association, or the Institution of Arts and Sciences. He belonged, in fact, to none of the numerous societies which swarm in the English capital, from the Harmonic to that of the Entomologists, founded mainly for the purpose of abolishing pernicious insects. Phileas Fogg was a member of the Reform, and that was all. The way in which he got admission to this exclusive club was simple enough. He was recommended by the Barings, with whom he had an open credit. His cheques were regularly paid at sight from his account current, which was always flush. Was Phileas Fogg rich? Undoubtedly. But those who knew him best could not imagine how he had made his fortune, and Mr. Fogg was the last person to whom to apply for the information. He was not lavish, nor, on the contrary, avaricious; for, whenever he knew that money was needed for a noble, useful, or benevolent purpose, he supplied it quietly and sometimes anonymously. He was, in short, the least communicative of men. He talked very little, and seemed all the more mysterious for his taciturn manner. His daily habits were quite open to observation; but whatever he did was so exactly the same thing that he had always done before, that the wits of the curious were fairly puzzled. Had he travelled? It was likely, for no one seemed to know the world more familiarly; there was no spot so secluded that he did not appear to have an intimate acquaintance with it. He often corrected, with a few clear words, the thousand conjectures advanced by members of the club as to lost and unheard-of travellers, pointing out the true probabilities, and seeming as if gifted with a sort of second sight, so often did events justify his predictions. He must have travelled everywhere, at least in the spirit. It was at least certain that Phileas Fogg had not absented himself from London for many years. Those who were honoured by a better acquaintance with him than the rest, declared that nobody could pretend to have ever seen him anywhere else. His sole pastimes were reading the papers and playing whist. He often won at this game, which, as a silent one, harmonised with his nature; but his winnings never went into his purse, being reserved as a fund for his charities. Mr. Fogg played, not to win, but for the sake of playing. The game was in his eyes a contest, a struggle with a difficulty, yet a motionless, unwearying struggle, congenial to his tastes. Phileas Fogg was not known to have either wife or children, which may happen to the most honest people; either relatives or near friends, which is certainly more unusual. He lived alone in his house in Saville Row, whither none penetrated. A single domestic sufficed to serve him. He breakfasted and dined at the club, at hours mathematically fixed, in the same room, at the same table, never taking his meals with other members, much less bringing a guest with him; and went home at exactly midnight, only to retire at once to bed. He never used the cosy chambers which the Reform provides for its favoured members. He passed ten hours out of the twenty-four in Saville Row, either in sleeping or making his toilet. When he chose to take a walk it was with a regular step in the entrance hall with its mosaic flooring, or in the circular gallery with its dome supported by twenty red porphyry Ionic columns, and illumined by blue painted windows. When he breakfasted or dined all the resources of the clubits kitchens and pantries, its buttery and dairyaided to crowd his table with their most succulent stores; he was served by the gravest waiters, in dress coats, and shoes with swan-skin soles, who proffered the viands in special porcelain, and on the finest linen; club decanters, of a lost mould, contained his sherry, his port, and his cinnamon-spiced claret; while his beverages were refreshingly cooled with ice, brought at great cost from the American lakes.
PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINOUS PAST SIMPLE PAST CONTINOUS SUDARYMAS Veiksmažodžio 1 forma Veiksmažodžio be forma ir veiksmažodis su galūne -ing Veiksmažodžio 2 forma arba veiksmažodis su –ed galūne Was/Were ir veiksmažodis su galūne -ing Pvz. Teigiamam sakiny; I play; You play; He plays; I am playing; You are playing; He is playing; I/You/he/etc walked I was studying; You were studying; He was studying. Neigiamam sakiny; I/You don‘t play; he doesn‘t play I am not playing; You are not playing; He is not playing; I/You/he/etc did not walk I wasn‘t studying; You weren‘t studying; He wasn‘t studying. Klausime; Do I/You play? Does he play? Am I playing? Are You playing? Is he playing? Did I/You/he/etc walk? Was I studying? Were you studying? Was he studying? NAUDOJIMAS • Kasdienei rutinai; (I catch the bus to work at 7 o‘clock every day ) • Pasikartojantiems veiksmams (he cleans the house every week ) • Įpročiams, pomėgiams (She usually stays at home on Sundays) • Pastoviai būsenai (He works in a bank) • Dieneotvarkei, tvarkaraščiams (The train leaves at 7 o‘clock) • Bendros, neginčijamos tiesos, gamtos dėsniai (water boils to 100C degrees) • Sporto, knygos komentarams, peržiūrai, pasakojimui. • Veiksmui, kuris vyksta dabar, tuo metu kai kalbama. (She is talking on the phone now) • Veiksmui, kuris vyksta šiomis dienomis (Peter is staying at his friend‘s these days) • Netolimoje ateityje suplanuotiems veiksmams; (I am flying to Paris tomorrow) • Situacijoms, kurios nėra pastovios ir keičiasi; (The climate is becoming warmer and warmer) • Per dažnai pasikartojantiems veiksmams, kurie erzina. Su žodeliais allways, constantly, continuously. (She is always talking in the lessons) • Veiksmui, kuris vyko nustatytu laiku praeityje. (Bob bought a car last month) • Veiksmams, kurie įvyko vienas po kito praeityje. (First he took a shower and then he went to bed.) • Praeities įpročiams Tam galima naudoti ir used to. (My grandmother read/used to read me bedtime stories when I was little) • Veiksmui, kuris vyko žinomu laiku praeityje. Mes nežinome kada jis prasidėjo ir kada baigėsi. (At eight o‘clock yesterday evening Tom and Mark were doing their homework) • Praeities veiksmui, kuris vyko kai kitas veiksmas jį pertraukė. Veiksmui, kuris vyko naudojame Past Continous, o veiksmui, kuris pertraukė- Past Simple. (He was exercising when he felt a sharp pain in his lower back) • Dviems ar daugiau veiksmų, kurie vyko tuo pačiu metu praeityje. (sarah was watching TV while I was reading a novel) • Suteikti pasakojimui „foną“, prieš aprašant pagrindinius faktus. (The band was playing and the people were singing and dancing when we arrived in the concert.) ŽODELIAI Every; at noon; at night; always; usually; often; sometimes; seldom; never. Now; at the moment; at present; these days; tomorrow; today; tonight; etc. Yesterday; yesterday morning/evening/etc. last; ago, in 1984. While; when; as; all day/night/morning; all day yesterday; etc. PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS PAST PERFECT PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS SUDARYMAS Have ir veiksmažodžio 3 forma arba veiksmažodis su galūne -ed Have/has been ir veiksmažodis su galūne -ing Had ir veiksmažodžio 3 forma, arba veiksmažodis su –ed galūne. Had been ir veiksmažodis su –ing galūne. Pvz. Teigiamam sakiny; I/you have booked; He has booked; I/You have been cycling; He has been cycling. I/You/had started I/You/he had been listening. Neigiamam sakiny; I/you haven‘t booked; He hasn‘t book. I/You haven‘t been cycling; He hasn‘t been cycling. I/You/he hadn‘t started I/You/he hadn‘t been listening. Klausime; Have I/you booked? Has he booked? Have I/You been cycling? Has he been cycling? Etc. Had I/You/he started? Had I/You/he been listening? NAUDOJIMAS • Veiksmams, kurie prasidėjo praeityje, ir tęsiasi dabar. (I have been techer for five years) • Praeities veiksmams, kurių rezultatus matome dabartyje.(He has washed his car) • Veiksmams, kurie įvyko praeityje, nenustatytu laiku. Veiksmas yra svarbesnis už laiką. (she has sold her house) • Petyrimams (have you ever slept in a tent?) • Veiksmams, kurie vyko tam tikru laiko periodu ir šis periodas dar nėra pasibaigęs tuo metu kai kalbama. (He has visited three museumsthis morning. Morning is not over yet.) • Veiksmams, kurie prasidėjo, kurįlaiką tęsėsi ir baigėsi praeityje. Rezultatas matomas dabartyje. (They have been sunbathing) • Veiksmams, kurie prasidėjo praeityje ir tęsiasi dar ir šiuo metu. (She has been cooking for two hours.) • Išreikšti pasipiktinimui, susierzinimui (Who has been using my computer?) • Veiksmui, kuris įvyko prieš kitą veiksmą praeityje. (She had painted the room by 5 o‘clock. (She finished painting before 5 o‘clock)) • Veiksmui, kuris įvyko prieš kitą būtąjį laiką. (She had booked a hotel before she arrived in Paris) • Veiksmui, kuris prasidėjo ir pasibaigė praeityje, ir rezultatas buvo matomas praeityje. (He had broken his arm, so he couldn‘t write) • Pabrėžti tąsą veiksmo, kuris prasidėjo ir pasibaigė praeityje.(She had been playing tennisfor ten years by the time she was eighteen.) • Pabrėžti tąsą veiksmo, kuris pasibaigė prieš kitą praeities veiksmą. (He had been studying for seven years before he got his degree.) • Veiksmui, kuris kurį laiką tęsėsi praeityje, ir jo rezultatas buvo matomas praeityje. (She was tired because she had been cleaning the house all day.) ŽODELIAI Ever, never, already, yet, just, so far, for, since, recently, lately, before. Ever, never, already yet, just, so far, for, since, recently, lately, before. Before; after; already;just; till/untill; when;by...; by the time; never; etc. For; since; how long; before; until; etc. FUTURE SIMPLE FUTURE CONTINOUS FUTURE PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINOUS BE GOING TO SUDARYMAS Will ir bendratis (be to) Will be (am, is, are) ir veiksmažodis su –ing galūne. Will have ir veiksmažodžio 3 forma arba veiksmažodis su –ed galūne. Will have been ir veiksmažodžio 3 forma arba veiksmažodis su galūne –ed. Be going to NAUDOJIMAS • Ateities spėjimams, kai remiamės tuo, ką manome ar ko tikimės. (I believe Bill will get a job) • „Greitiems sprendimams“. (We‘ve run out of milk. I will go to the supermarket and get some.) • Pažadams, grąsinimams, įspėjimams, reikalavimams, viltims, pasiūlimams. • Veiksmams, atsitikimams, situacijoms, kurios būtinai įvyks ateityje, ir kurių negalima kontroliuoti. (Ben will be five years old in August.) • Veiksmams, kurie vyks nustatytu laiku ateityje. (I am going to Spain. This time next week I will be lying in the sun.) • Veiksmams, kurie tikrai įvyks ateityje kaip rezultatas kokios nors rutinos arba pasirengimų. • Kai klausiama mandagiai apie netolimos ateities planus, dažniausiai siekiant sau naudos. (Will you be driving to the party tonight? Would you be able to give me a lift?) • Veiksmui, kuris bus pasibaigęs iki tam tikro ateities momento. (They will have arrived in London by 5 o‘clock) • Pabrėžti tąsą veiksmo, kuris tęsėsi iki tam tikro momento ateityje. (By June, he will have been teaching in this school for fifteen years) • Ketinimams, planams, ambicijoms ateičiai. (I am going to go to India one day.) • Veiksmams, kuriuos mes jau nusprendėme atlikti netolimoje ateityje. (Nicky is going to visit her friends in London next week.) • Sprendimams (spėjimams), kurie remiasi tuo, ką matome ar žinome, ypač kai yra įrodymai, kad kažkas tikrai nutiks. (There isn‘t a cloud in the sky. It is going to be a beautiful day.) ŽODELIAI Think, believe, probably, certainly, parhaps, expect... etc. Before; by; by then; by the time;until/till By ... for Tomorrow; the day after tomorrow; tonight; soon; next week/month/year/sommer/etc; in a week/month/etc.
Anglų kalba  Paruoštukės   (10,67 kB)
American people
2009-12-22
And they wanted nothing back. Later we hitched a ride to Salinas with a truck driver. He was also worried about our safety and tried over his CB radio to fix us up with a ride with another trucker from Salinas to San Francisco. When he could not, he told us, “I do not want to leave you on the street, so I will take you up myself to make sure you get there safely.” And then he drove us to San Francisco and dropped us off on Market Street where we were going to stay. And he didin’t want anything back. He would not let pay him. That trip was a highlight of my stay in America. Richard Ingrams, a reporter for the Illustrated London News, enjoyed a memorable encounter with a street beggar near Watington: On our way down the hill from Monticello, Alexander remarked on another curios fact about Americans: “If you look at them, they always smile. I find that rather disconcerting.” Personally, I said I found it rather nice, and a pleasant change from the dour and suspicious looks one gets from one’s fellow countrymen. In fact what is nice about America is not the scenery or the skyscrapers…. It is the smiling, open attitude of the American people. On my last morning in Georgetown I found myself confronted in the main street by a large, beaming, bearded man. “Good morning, sir,” he cried. “I’m a bum! Would you give me some money?” No cringing. No pretence about cups of tea. A frank, straightforward approach to the situation. I immediately fished in my pocket for all available change – something I would never do in England – and decided I would probably be back quite soon. From “Stars and Gripes,” in the Illustrated London News, September 1987 The Violent American “The best thing about Americans their violence-oriented country is the fact the Atlantic is between us,” insist a retired British journalist. “American foreign policy pervers the advance of humanity and culture by creating a weapon-oriented life for all of us.” One aspect of American behavior which provokes numerous hostile comments from foreign observers is what they perceive as our tendency toward aggressive and violent actions. Dr. Hugo Molteni, a Buenos Aires physician, has never visited America but draws his conclusions from the newspapers, films, and television shows he has watched: The information I have about the U.S. demonstrates that they are a people who are clearly aggressive. For example, in all the movies I see, violence predominates. The there are the television series, police stories, crimes, assassination, drug deals. I think they have commercialized individual passition. The people of the United States have a wartime mentality. Quoted in Dallas Morning News, July 6, 1986  The Russian comic Yakov Smirnoff has found in America’s criminal violence a rich source for witticisms: Police departaments, like those in the United States, are created to protect you and keep you safe. As a matter of fact, thanks to them, Americans have many wonderful things we never had in the Soviet Union. Like warning shots. I think they’re great. In Russia the police don’t shoot up in the air. They shoot you!… and that’s the warning for the next guy. From America on Six Rubles a Day American Provincialism Christina Ruffini had complaint about the Americans she met during her stay in Southern California: Many Americans are much too provincial. They have no sense of what my Italy is like. I have had Americans ask me if we have freeways in Italy. This is crazy! I think this ignorance of a world beyond their borders is a big problem for many Americans. From an interview with the author, June 17, 1988  Anita Mandrekar, who lives in Bombay, alsofound the ignorance ofmost Americans regarding her native India appalling on her recent trip to the United States. Americans are generally ignorant on international matters. People there do not know much of the world outside. Even upper income groups still think that we in India live in jungles and have wild animals and snakes crawling all over. From a letter to the author, dated August 7, 1988 Literature: James C. Simmons “AMERICANS. The view from abroad” Harmony books New York 1990
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Religios houses of retreas merge imperceptibly into disintoxication clinics and private mental homes for the victims of traffic light and nervous break-down. ‘Alcoholics Anonymous’ slink like house detectives around the literary cocktail parties. A most interesting phenomenon is the state of mind apparent in Time, Life, The New York, and similar magazines. Thus Life, with its enormous circulation, comes out with excellentry written leading articles on the death of tragedy in American literature or the meaning of suffering, and a closer acquaintance reveals them to be staffed by some of the most interesting and sensitive minds in that insensitivecity. It is easy to make fun of these three papers, but in fact they are not funny. Although they have very large circulations indeed, they only just miss being completely honourable and serious journals, in fact ‘highbrow’. The American organism is not quite healthy. It indicates how very nearly New York has achieved the ideal of a humanist society, where the best of which an artist is capable is desired by the greatest number. Thurber’s drawings, Hersey’s Hiroshima, the essays of Edmund Wilson or Mary McCarthy, Time’s anonymous reviews, show that occasionally the gap is closed; when it is closed permanenty the dreams of Santayana will be near fulfilment. But these anxiety-forming predicaments (Time-stomach is a common trouble) are for those who live in New York and have to earn they living. To the visiting non-competitive European all is unending delight. The shops, the bars, the women, the faces in the street, the excellent and innumerable restaurants, the glitter of Twenty-one, the old-world letharly of the Lafayette, the hazy view of the East River or Central Park over tea in some apartment at the magic hour when the concrete iceberg suddenly flare up; the impressionist pictures in one house, the exotic trees or bamboo furniture in another, the chick of ‘old-fashioneds’ with their little glass pestles. If Paris is the setting for a romance, New York is the perfect city in which to get over one, to get over anything. Here the lost douceur de vivre is forgotten and the intoxication of living takes its place. What is this intoxication? Firtly, health. The American diet is energy- producing. Health is not just the absence of disease, but a positive physical sensation. The European, his voice dropping a tone every day, finds himself growing stouter, balder, more extroverted and aggressive, conscious of a place in what is still, despite lip-service, a noisily masculine society. Then there is the sensation of belonging to a great nation in its present prosperous period of triumph. But, in addition to ‘feeling good,’ the Americans are actively generous and kind and it is this profusion of civilities which ravishes the visitor. What are the alternatives? We may stay on and coarsen–many English writers do-into shapely executives or Park Avenue brandy philosophrers; we can fight like Auden for privacy and isolation, or grow bitter and fitzrovian in the ‘Village atmosphere’-or we can try elsewhere. Cape Cod or Connecticut have their devotees, but these havens are the rewards of success, not its incubator. Boston, last stronghold of a leisured class, offers a select enlighternment of which a contemporary Englishman is just downright unworthy. Washington has immense charm, the streets of Georgetown with their ilexes and magnolias and little white box-house are like corners of Chelsea or Exeter, but a political nexus offers few resoyrces to the artist who is outside the administration, and the lovely surrounding, are not places in which he can hope to earn a living. Let us try California. The night place circles round La Guardia, leaves behind the icy water of the Sound and that sinister Stonehenge of economic man, the Rockefeller Center, to disappear over the Middle West. Vast rectangles of light occasionally indicate Chicago or some other well-planned city, till at six in the morning we ground in the snow of Omaha. As it grows light the snow-fields over the whole agricultural region of the Middle West grow more intricate, the Great Plais give way to the Bad Lands, poison ivy to poison oak, the sinuosities of the Platte rivers to the Hight Plais, the mountains of Wyoming, the Continental Divide. San Francisco is a city of charming people and hideous buildings, mostly erected after the earthquake in the style of 1910, with a large Chinatown in which everything is fake-except the the Chinese-with a tricky humid climate (though sunny in winter), and a maddening indecision in the vegetation-which can never decide if it belongs to the North or South and achieves a Bournemouth compromise. The site is fantastically beautiful, the orange bridge, the seven hills, the white houses, the waterside suburbs across the Golden Gate give it a lovely strangeness, the sunset view from the ‘Top of the Mark’ is unique-but the buildings lack all dignity and flavour. Yet San Francisco and its surroudings, Marin Country, Berkeley, Sauselito with its three climates, San Mateo where lemon and birch tree grow together, probably represent the most attractive all-the-year-round alternative to Europe which the worl can provide. There is some fog in winter, but generally it is sunny. The sea is there, the mountains and a bathing pool in the redwood forest. Hollywood and Los Angeles are well described by Isherwood. On the whole those who have loved the Mediterranean will not be reconciled here and those who care deeply for books can never settle down to the impermanent world of cinema. Those who do not love the cinema have no business to come. Well, maybe it does, perhaps Americans have destroyed their romantic wilderness on a grander scale than our own rodent attrition at the beauties of our countryside.
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American English speaking without a lot of effort How To Learn American English Speaking Easily? Everyone learns to speak their native language. Is there some things that kids are missing when they are emerging? Dr. J. Marvin Brown says that “both adults and children can do it right, but only adults can do it wrong.” So why we can not use the same approach with a second language? Why we can’t learn American English speaking like children? Easily and without a lot of effort. In fact we can. There are a lot of researches which shows that adults can learn languages even more easily and fast. But here‘s the thing. We need forget all that we were learning in school. Because it is the most important reason why we can not speak American English at all. That’s the reason why we don’t understand anything when American people are talking to each other. Yes, we can read American and English newspapers, but this language is not the same. The people are not speaking that way. Their speech is different. If we want to understand native American speakers and speak with them, we must find the different way. In 1984, the American University Language Center in Bangkok started using a new approach to teach the Thai language. The method is known as “Automatic Language Growth”. The first mistake they noticed is that adults are trying to speak in new language to early. They don’t have enough exposure to language yet and they are struggling and feel uncomfortable. They are bringing patterns from their first language and later they are speaking with a strong accent. Children in the beginning are just listening to the new language. They starts to speak when they are prepared. That’s the big difference. The second mistake adults make is that they are thinking, that they must study grammar. That’s a huge mistake. A vital mistake. Children do not studying grammar and that’s the key. If we want to learn American English speaking we must learn speaking. Not grammar. Learning grammar does not make you fluent. You must train your ears and you must train your mouth. So how we can learn speaking without grammar. Simply. First of all we must listen. Every day one or two hours. The more is the best. We must listen to easy and understandible content. That builds our confidence. And we must begin to speak when we are prepared only. When we can do this without struggling. It commes authomatically. Believe me. I have done this with Original Effortless English Lessons. It is totally new approach in learning English. It is real language. You can learn English speaking naturally. You can do the same. You can learn American English speaking just like I did.
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Alcoholism
2009-12-22
More males than females are affected by alcoholism, but drinking among the young and among women is increasing. Consumption of alcohol is apparently on the rise in the United States, as is the total alcohol consumption and prevalence of alcohol-related problems in the former communist countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. This increase is paralleled in other countries, including developing nations. After 1980, however, consumption remained relatively stable in many western European nations. Alcoholism, as opposed to merely excessive or irresponsible drinking, has been thought of as a symptom of psychological or social stress or as a learned, maladaptive coping behaviour. More recently, and probably more accurately, it has come to be viewed as a complex disease in its own right. Alcoholism usually develops over a period of years. Alcohol comes to be used more as a mood-changing drug than as a foodstuff or beverage served as a part of social custom or religious ritual. Initially, the alcoholic may demonstrate a high tolerance to alcohol, consuming more and showing fewer adverse effects than others. Subsequently, however, the person begins to drink against his or her own best interests, as alcohol comes to assume more importance than personal relationships, work, reputation, or even physical health. The person commonly loses control over drinking and is increasingly unable to predict how much alcohol will be consumed on a given occasion or, if the person is currently abstaining, when the drinking will resume again. Physical addiction to the drug may occur, sometimes eventually leading to drinking around the clock to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Effects Alcohol has direct toxic as well as sedative effects on the body, and failure to take care of nutritional and other physical needs during prolonged periods of excessive drinking may further complicate matters. Advanced cases often require hospitalization. The effects on major organ systems are cumulative and include a wide range of digestive-system disorders such as ulcers, inflammation of the pancreas, and cirrhosis of the liver. The central and peripheral nervous systems can be permanently damaged. Blackouts, hallucinations, and extreme tremors may occur. The latter symptoms are involved in the most serious alcohol withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens, which can prove fatal despite prompt treatment. This is in contrast to withdrawal from narcotic drugs such as heroin, which, although distressing, rarely results in death. Recent evidence has shown that heavy—and even moderate—drinking during pregnancy can cause serious damage to the unborn child: physical or mental retardation, or both; a rare but severe expression of this damage is known as foetal alcohol syndrome. HISTORY OF ALCOHOL Thousands of years ago people began to make alcohol for practical reasons. Wine making began with the early Egyptians who found that grape juise spoiled quickly,but that fermented juise or wine would keep without spoiling.They also had problems with impure water,and the Egyptians noticed that people did not sick ower wine,but they often became ill when they drank inpure water.In later years,wine became inportant to the Roman Catholic Church throughuot Europe because wine was used to celebrate the sacrament of the Mass.By the 1300`s,beer industry had emerged in Central Europe.At this time,wine was also continuing to grow in popularity;many brands named for the places in which they originated.At first alcohol was desined for the practical reasons,its use changed.People began to experiment with different types of alcohol.Alcohol became an integral part of European culture.We need to understand the harmful effects of alcohol,because it can be fatal.
Agoraphobia
2009-12-22
These people avoid being on busy streets or in crowded stores, theatres and churches. Normal activities become restricted as the person avoids these situations. Many agoraphobia victims are afraid of leaving the house. Perhaps for this reason agoraphobia is the most common phobia seen in the clinic, about 60% of all examined phobias. Agoraphobia occurs about two times more commonly among women than men. It can be connected with the fact, that Women have been and are still being stereotyped, agoraphobia has been explained in terms of traditional sex roles. Clinical descriptions of agoraphobics use such words as passive, shy, dependent, descriptions traditionally applied to women. It may be as Fodor suggests, that being agoraphobic, is in part a logical, although exaggerated, extension of the stereotyped female role. Until recently and still in many societies it has been more acceptable for a woman than for a man to be housebound. As stereotypes of womes as helpless, fragile, home-oriented, passive, fearful and dependent will change, the should be equal number of male-female agoraphobics. The disorder tends to be more common among families where other members also suffer from an anxiety disorder and/or possibly abuse alcohol. Most agoraphobia’s develop symptoms between the ages of 18 and 35. The onset may be sudden or gradual. Many agoraphobia victims develop the disorder after first suffering a series of panic attacks in public places. The attacks seem to occur randomly and without warning, making it impossible for a person to predict what situation will trigger such a reaction. Attack is accompanied with tension, anxiety, dizziness, depression, sweating, more frequent heartbeating, minor checking compulsions – checking is the door is locked, no intruder is under the bed, the iron is offf- rumination and fear of going mad. One study found that 93% of agoraphobics also reported fears of heights and enclosed spaces such as subways and elevators. But many agoraphobics have “good days”, when they can move about. Being with a trusted companion can also help them leave the house. Treatment Fortunately, phobias are very treatable. In fact, most people who seek treatment completely overcome their fears for life. Psychoanalytic approaches. Treatment tries to uncover the repressed conflict, that are thought to be covered in the extreme fear and avoidance. Phobia is thought to protect the person from repressed conflicts that are too painful to face it. There are two major techniques, that are used to help lift the repression. First is – free association. The analyst listen carefully to what tha patient mentions in connections with any references to the phobia. And second – analyst tries to discover origins of the phobia by analyzing the content of dreams. But more effective relief can be gained through either behavior therapy or medication. In behavior therapy, one meets with a trained therapist and learns to control the physical reactions of fear. The person first imagines the feared object or situation, works up to looking at pictures that show the object or situation, and finally actually experiences the situation or comes in contact with the feared object. the person becomes accustomed to it and can lose the terror, horror, panic, and dread he or she once felt. It is called systematic desensitization. Medications are used to control the panic experienced during a phobic situation as well as the anxiety aroused by anticipation of that situation and are the treatment of first choice for social phobia and agoraphobia. Any phobia that interferes with daily living and creates extreme disability should be treated. With proper treatment, the vast majority of phobia patients can completely overcome their fears and be symptom free for years, if not for life.
Acid rain
2009-12-22
. On both sides of the border, cars and trucks are the main sources for nitric acid(about 40% of the total), while power generating plants and industrial commercial and residential fuel combustion together contribute most of the rest. In the air, the sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can be transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid, and air current can send them thousands of kilometres from the source.When the acids fall to the earth in any form it will have large impact on the growth or the preservation of certain wildlife. NO DEFENCE Areas in Ontario mainly southern regions that are near the Great Lakes, such substances as limestone or other known antacids can neutralize acids entering the body of water thereby protecting it. However, large areas of Ontario that are near the Pre©Cambrian Shield, with quartzite or granite based geology and little top soil, there is not enough buffering capacity to neutralize even small amounts of acid falling on the soil and the lakes. Therefore over time, the basic environment shifts from an alkaline to a acidic one. This is why many lakes in the Muskoka, Haliburton, Algonquin, Parry Sound and Manitoulin districts could lose their fisheries if sulphur emissions are not reduced substantially. ACID The average mean of pH rainfall in Ontario's Muskoka©Haliburton lake country ranges between 3.95 and 4.38 about 40 times more acidic than normal rainfall, while storms in Pennsilvania have rainfall pH at 2.8 it almost has the same rating for vinegar. Already 140 Ontario lakes are completely dead or dying. An additional 48 000 are sensitive and vulnerable to acid rain due to the surrounding concentrated acidic soils.Ô ACID RAIN CONSISTS OF....? Canada does not have as many people, power plants or automobiles as the United States, and yet acid rain there has become so severe that Canadian government officials called it the most pressing environmental issue facing the nation. But it is important to bear in mind that acid rain is only one segment, of the widespread pollution of the atmosphere facing the world. Each year the global atmosphere is on the receiving end of 20 billion tons of carbon dioxide, 130 million tons of suffer dioxide, 97 million tons of hydrocarbons, 53 million tons of nitrogen oxides, more than three million tons of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc and other toxic metals, and a host of synthetic organic compounds ranging from polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) to toxaphene and other pesticides, a number of which may be capable of causing cancer, birth defects, or genetic imbalances. COST OF ACID RAIN Interactions of pollutants can cause problems. In addition to contributing to acid rain, nitrogen oxides can react with hydrocarbons to produce ozone, a major air pollutant responsible in the United States for annual losses of $2 billion to 4.5 billion worth of wheat, corn, soyabeans, and peanuts. A wide range of interactions can occur many unknown with toxic metals. In Canada, Ontario alone has lost the fish in an estimated 4000 lakes and provincial authorities calculate that Ontario stands to lose the fish in 48 500 more lakes within the next twenty years if acid rain continues at the present rate.Ontario is not alone, on Nova Scotia's Eastern most shores, almost every river flowing to the Atlantic Ocean is poisoned with acid. Further threatening a $2 million a year fishing industry. Ô Acid rain is killing more than lakes. It can scar the leaves of hardwood forest, wither ferns and lichens, accelerate the death of coniferous needles, sterilize seeds, and weaken the forests to a state that is vulnerable to disease infestation and decay. In the soil the acid neutralizes chemicals vital for growth, strips others from the soil and carries them to the lakes and literally retards the respiration of the soil. The rate of forest growth in the White Mountains of New Hampshire has declined 18% between 1956 and 1965, time of increasingly intense acidic rainfall. Acid rain no longer falls exclusively on the lakes, forest, and thin soils of the Northeast it now covers half the continent. EFFECTS There is evidence that the rain is destroying the productivity of the once rich soils themselves, like an overdose of chemical fertilizer or a gigantic drenching of vinegar. The damage of such overdosing may not be repairable or reversible. On some croplands, tomatoes grow to only half their full weight, and the leaves of radishes wither. Naturally it rains on cities too, eating away stone monuments and concrete structures, and corroding the pipes which channel the water away to the lakes and the cycle is repeated. Paints and automobile paints have its life reduce due to the pollution in the atmosphere speeding up the corrosion process. In some communities the drinking water is laced with toxic metals freed from metal pipes by the acidity. As if urban skies were not already grey enough, typical visibility has declined from 10 to 4 miles, along the Eastern seaboard, as acid rain turns into smogs. Also, now there are indicators that the components of acid rain are a health risk, linked to human respiratory disease. PREVENTION However, the acidification of water supplies could result in increased concentrations of metals in plumbing such as lead, copper and zinc which could result in adverse health effects. After any period of non©use, water taps at summer cottages or ski chalets they should run the taps for at least 60 seconds to flush any excess debris. Ô STATISTICS Although there is very little data, the evidence indicates that in the last twenty to thirty years the acidity of rain has increased in many parts of the United States. Presently, the United States annually discharges more than 26 million tons of suffer dioxide into the atmosphere. Just three states, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois are responsible for nearly a quarter of this total. Overall, twoªthirds of the suffer dioxide into the atmosphere over the United States comes from coal©fired and oil fired plants. Industrial boilers, smelters, and refineries contribute 26%; commercial institutions and residences 5%; and transportation 3%. The outlook for future emissions of suffer dioxide is not a bright one. Between now and the year 2000, United States utilities are expected to double the amount of coal they burn. The United States currently pumps some 23 million tons of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere in the course of the year. Transportation sources account for 40%; power plants, 30%; industrial sources, 25%; and commercial institutions and residues, 5%. What makes these figures particularly distributing is that nitrogen oxide emissions have tripled in the last thirty years. FINAL THOUGHTS Acid rain is very real and a very threatening problem. Action by one government is not enough. In order for things to be done we need to find a way to work together on this for at least a reduction in the contaminates contributing to acid rain. Although there are right steps in the right directions but the government should be cracking down on factories not using the best filtering systems when incinerating or if the factory is giving off any other dangerous fumes.
1. Personal identification I’m Darius. I was born in 1978 on the 21th of February in Kaunas. I don’t remember anything about the weather that day, but I know that it was about 2:30 p.m. I was the first child in the family. Our family is not very big, I have a brother. When I was a child I can't say, that I was a good boy. My parents always want me to be a good man, and now I'm very thankful for that. At that time I didn’t understand that my parents wanted good for me, and I made my mother worry about me very often. I think, that my character isn’t bad now and I’m a good, sincere and tolerant teenager. In 1985 I started school and now I'm graduating it. I was good at all subjects. I am fond of school. I liked my class. I always felt like at home here. Everybody was so friendly and easy to get a long with. I was on good terms with my classmates and we always spend our free time together. I think, that school years maybe remain in my heart forever. I want to say a few words about the future. I'm going to take entrance exams and enter KTU. I would like to study Computer Science. My parents are engineers - programmers and I like this profession too. That's all about myself. 2. Services Services aren't important as food, drinks or home, but it's enough important to as. One of them we use more frequently others we don't use. There are many services in my region. There is post near my house. You can use all services that post can offer: to send a postcard, letter or parcel, make postal - order, to buy stamp or postcard. There are petrols where you can buy gas. Also there are hospital and police station in my region. Police station is one of the unpleasant services. You get there when you commit something bad. If you want to do photos it's no problem, because there are some places there you can make photograph. A Very important service for people's beauty is hairdressing saloon. But there is only one saloon in my region. Bank is very important for people, which have their own business. Usually they open checking account. But a lot of firms haven't enough money so they take loans. Diplomatic services are useful, when you are in foreign country or when you want to go there. And garage - service use people who have a car. Here they can check and put right their cars. The most important services are hairdressing, photography, post, and hospital. So all services are very useful. They make our life easier. 3. House and home I live in apartment house. This house is in _____ street. I have an apartment in a nine-story building I live on the second floor. The livers keep house in order. There are many trees near my house. My house was built in 1991. The number of my flat is 17. I live in the two rooms flat. The area of my flat is about 60 square meters. There is a balcony in my flat. I have a fine view from the balcony and windows. I have two bed-sitting rooms, a bathroom, a toilet, a corridor and kitchen. There are bookcases, wardrobes, beds, tables in the bed-sitting rooms. My walls are papered. On the floor there are carpets. I have all amenities hot and cold water, gas, electric light, central heating, lift. In the kitchen there is gas cooker. There are gas meter, electric meter and water meter. I would like to have a detached house in some solitary place, far away from the town's noise, smoke and polluted air. Sure it'll be a two-stored house with a big yard and garden. 4. Flora Lithuania's flora is rich and varied, because of its geographical position and climatic peculiarities, but we can't boast that it's peculiar to it alone. We have typical northern plants such as conifers, deciduous trees. Forests cover one fourth of its territory. 3 centuries ago, they were twice as extensive. Nowadays more woods are cut down than replanted. We have lots of spruce, birch and alder woods as well. It's a pity such trees as oaks, ashes and limes are decreasing, because they were used as timber. Now we can hardly find oak, ash or lime woods. The preservation and restoration of forest hasn't been given great attention. Every year hectares of forest are planted, but more hectares are felled. Timber is still the chief article of export. Some trees are remarkable as natural rarities. In East Lithuania at Stelmuze grows an old oak, that according to botanists, about 1,5 thousand years old. Forests cover one half of the territory in east and South Lithuania. The Varena-Druskininkai forests spread on area of thousands square km. These forests abound in mushrooms, berries and beasts. The Rudininkai forest remind as of historical events. The rebels of 1831 and 1863 against the Russian czar found refuge in it. The Cepkeliai swamp, covering 5000ha is the largest in Lithuania. Broad and beautiful are the Labanoras, Kazlu Ruda and other forests. 40% of Lithuanian's territory is occupied by arable land. 5. Fauna The Lithuanian forests have inspired many poets, writers and composers. They devoted their works to the charm of woods. The fauna has no particular species peculiar to it alone. There are various species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. For various reasons many kinds or them became extinct. This fate befell aurochs, bisons, bears, etc. All forests can boast of the giant of woods - the antlered elk. Elk meat is exported abroad. Deer are less common. Roe and hares are abundant everywhere. Wild hogs, foxes, squirrels, martens are rather numerous. The number of wolves has shrunk. The beaver was entirely exterminated, but now it has been reacclimatized. Their houses are frequent on the banks of many rivers. New species of animals such as punctate deer, minks have been acclimatized. They feel quit at home and bear offspring. We have 300 species of birds. In forests we can hear voices of woodpeckers, cuckoos, owls, hawks and others. In rivers, lakes and swamps are various species of ducks, geese, and swans, where they hatch their young. In Neringa there is a settlement of grey herons, rare birds. There are about 50 species of fish in Lithuania. We can't boast that abound in our lakes and rivers. Bream, roach, salmon, eels, carps are caught. Salmon comes to our rivers to spawn.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (22,04 kB)
Personal identification I’m Marius. I was born in 1981 on the 28th of January in Kaunas. I don’t remember anything about the weather that day, but I know that it was about 2:30 p.m. I was the first child in the family. Our family is not very big, I have a brother. When I was a child I can't say, that I was a good boy. My parents always want me to be a good man, and now I'm very thankful for that. At that time I didn’t understand that my parents wanted good for me, and I made my mother worry about me very often. I think, that my character isn’t bad now and I’m a good, sincere and tolerant teenager. In 1987 I started school and now I'm graduating it. I was good at all subjects. I am fond of school. I liked my class. I always felt like at home here. Everybody was so friendly and easy to get a long with. I was on good terms with my classmates and we always spend our free time together. I think, that school years maybe remain in my heart forever. I want to say a few words about the future. I'm going to take entrance exams and enter KTU. I would like to study Computer Science. My parents are engineers - programmers and I like this profession too. That's all about myself. 2. Services Services aren't important as food, drinks or home, but it's enough important to as. One of them we use more frequently others we don't use. There are many services in my region. There is post near my house. You can use all services that post can offer: to send a postcard, letter or parcel, make postal - order, to buy stamp or postcard. There are petrols where you can buy gas. Also there are hospital and police station in my region. Police station is one of the unpleasant services. You get there when you commit something bad. If you want to do photos it's no problem, because there are some places there you can make photograph. A Very important service for people's beauty is hairdressing saloon. But there is only one saloon in my region. Bank is very important for people, which have their own business. Usually they open checking account. But a lot of firms haven't enough money so they take loans. Diplomatic services are useful, when you are in foreign country or when you want to go there. And garage - service use people who have a car. Here they can check and put right their cars. The most important services are hairdressing, photography, post, and hospital. So all services are very useful. They make our life easier. 3. House and home I live in apartment house. This house is in _____ street. I have an apartment in a nine-story building I live on the second floor. The livers keep house in order. There are many trees near my house. My house was built in 1991. The number of my flat is 17. I live in the two rooms flat. The area of my flat is about 60 square meters. There is a balcony in my flat. I have a fine view from the balcony and windows. I have two bed-sitting rooms, a bathroom, a toilet, a corridor and kitchen. There are bookcases, wardrobes, beds, tables in the bed-sitting rooms. My walls are papered. On the floor there are carpets. I have all amenities hot and cold water, gas, electric light, central heating, lift. In the kitchen there is gas cooker. There are gas meter, electric meter and water meter. I would like to have a detached house in some solitary place, far away from the town's noise, smoke and polluted air. Sure it'll be a two-stored house with a big yard and garden. 4. Flora Lithuania's flora is rich and varied, because of its geographical position and climatic peculiarities, but we can't boast that it's peculiar to it alone. We have typical northern plants such as conifers, deciduous trees. Forests cover one fourth of its territory. 3 centuries ago, they were twice as extensive. Nowadays more woods are cut down than replanted. We have lots of spruce, birch and alder woods as well. It's a pity such trees as oaks, ashes and limes are decreasing, because they were used as timber. Now we can hardly find oak, ash or lime woods. The preservation and restoration of forest hasn't been given great attention. Every year hectares of forest are planted, but more hectares are felled. Timber is still the chief article of export. Some trees are remarkable as natural rarities. In East Lithuania at Stelmuze grows an old oak, that according to botanists, about 1,5 thousand years old. Forests cover one half of the territory in east and South Lithuania. The Varena-Druskininkai forests spread on area of thousands square km. These forests abound in mushrooms, berries and beasts. The Rudininkai forest remind as of historical events. The rebels of 1831 and 1863 against the Russian czar found refuge in it. The Cepkeliai swamp, covering 5000ha is the largest in Lithuania. Broad and beautiful are the Labanoras, Kazlu Ruda and other forests. 40% of Lithuanian's territory is occupied by arable land.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (21,34 kB)
About languages (apie kalbas) My native language is Lithuania. So he must know its history, grammar, literature spelling. When I was on the fourth form I began to learn the English language. From the very first days I understood that it is very difficult to learn. English, as it has different pronunciation and spelling. If you want to learn new words, grammar, how to form the sentence. It is necessary to know the history, culture, traditions of the country which language, you study. It is very difficult to learn any foreign language when you do not hear it in the street at house. The film which we see on TV are translated into native language and we can’t hear the English language. The English language is very popular in the world and what country you visit you can communicate in England. The role of the foreign languageshas inereased in the last years, as Lithuanian keeps good relations with other European countries and is going to biome a member of European Union and NATO. So every young person must think about his future and the use of the foreign language. The European Union(apie europos sąjungą) The European Union is the European supranational organization dedicated to increasing economic integration and strengthening co-operation among its member states. The European Union was established on November one, nineteen ninety three. The treaty on European Union was ratified by the twelve members of the European community. They were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. The citizen of the European Union countries received the right to immigrate From owe country to another and they got a greater freedom to live, work or study in any of the member states and there were no borders to travel from are European Union State to another. The main body of the European Union is the European Parliament, which is elected by the citizens of the European Union States. The main body works in Strasburg, but most work of its committee is done in Brussels. Finland, Austria and Sweden joined the European Union in nineteen ninety five. In this year May first day Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia will become the members of the European Union. There are seven other countries which will become the members of the European union. They are: Poland, Cheek, Cyprus, Malta, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia. About myself(apie save) My name is Justina and surname is Šaučiūnaitė. I live in Anykščiai in Stoties street No eleven. I was born on the fiveof march nineteen eighty six in Anykščiai. I am eighteen, I am the citizen of Lithuania. I am a schoolgirl and I learn in the twelve form of Antanas Baranauskas secandary school. So I am a school-leaver.I live with my family: father, mather, I have one sister and one brother. All my Familymembers are cathalics.We the memders of our family are very friendly. We celebrate all Lithuanian holidays together. My favourite group is B‘avarija. My favourite singer is Andrius Mamontovas and also every yang person has a favourite pop graup.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (17,09 kB)
Since the times of Roman Empire, London was one of the greatest commercial and social cities. What makes London famous nowadays is its historical heritage, kept many centuries, and modern buildings, built for the pleasure of the visitor.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 4,42 kB)
The subjects of this presentation are the origins of American lexicography which will be represented through main problems, bilingual dictionaries, historical development of British and American lexicography, the great works of Noah Webster, also by the lexicographic influences of encyclopaedic dictionary by John Ogilvie and Funk and Wagnall’s standard dictionaries.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (9 psl., 17,83 kB)
Lithuanian flora consists of deciduous trees, coniferous wood, mixed forests and bushes. Deciduous trees are oak, birch, alder, lime and others. Fir and pine are from coniferous wood. Mixed forests compose the biggest part of Lithuanian flora. Many animals are involved in Red book in Lithuania. Hunters don’t think about damage which they make hunting animals. In my opinion, national parks and conservation areas are necessary in Lithuania. These places protect our forests from cutting, animals don’t disappear.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 9,38 kB)
To start with, I would like to say that I grew up in country which is called Pikteikiai. So I am country’s child. My home country is in Klaipėda district, 38 kilometres from Klaipėda..... I finished secondary school in Gargždai, so it is like my native town. Because of it I would like to talk more about this town. Gargždai is 16 kilometres from Pikteikiai. It is one of the oldest living places in whole Lithuania.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (5 psl., 10,06 kB)
Pirmiausia reikia išsiaiškinti, kas yra socialinis pedagogas, kokios jo funkcijos? Kas būdinga asmenybei? G. Kvieskienė (Kvieskienė, 2003) yra pasakiusi labai prasmingą teiginį, jog socialiniai pedagogai – vaiko gerovės sergėtojai ir vaiko advokatai – siekia apsaugoti tuos, už kuriuos atsako, tai yra mažiausius ir silpniausius piliečius. Šio tikslo jie siekia pasitelkdami humanizmo mąstytojų idėjas, iškiliausių praktikų pedagogų, altruistų, dvasinės sferos darbuotojų atsidavimą begalinei būčiai, aukojimąsi visoms būties apraiškoms. Socialinis pedagogas spręsdamas kitų problemas pirmiausia pasitelkia savo jėgomis, sugebėjimu greitai orientuotis situacijoje, savo erudicija.
Komunikacijos  Diplominiai darbai   (68 psl., 123,21 kB)
Cosmetics
2009-10-28
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance or protect the apperance or oder of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powder, perfumes, lipstick, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial make up, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair color, hair sprays and gels, deodorant, baby product, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many othertypes of products.
Anglų kalba  Pateiktys   (14 psl., 70,25 kB)
Angliški išsireiškimai, visi turėtų būti teisingi, nes dirbta su gera anglų mokytoja.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (5 psl., 12,88 kB)
Pašiaušė
2009-10-16
Pašiaušė is a tiny spot in the map of Šiauliai district, no need to mention how small it is on Lithuanian` s or even larger scale. However it attracts the eyes and the hearts of numerous people, interested in the history of our country, as if saying: “Yes, this is the place, far away from European cities, which three and a half hundred years ago witnessed intensive cultural life, the spread of scientific novelties, the truths of Christian faith and most progressive European ideas”.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 4,06 kB)
Pollution problems
2009-10-09
Today pollution is very important problem in the world. What we can see on television, or hear on the radio about our environment is only wishful thinking, because in the real life, around us, there is lots of rubbish, water is unhealthy and air is not very clean. People drop litter around and they don’t think about consequences. We should take thought about saving the environment, because it is one of the biggest gifts of the life.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,46 kB)
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880. So I want to tell abaout one of most beautiful city Liverpool.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (7 psl., 71,56 kB)
A book review
2009-09-29
Tai recenzija Collen McCullough knygos "The Thorn Birds". Turinys atitinka visus reikalavimus. na manau toki pateikus mokytojai tikrai gausite gerą įvertinimą.
Anglų kalba  Pateiktys   (1 psl., 3,63 kB)
15 anglų kalbos tekstų kalbėjimui.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (5 psl., 15,04 kB)
Vulnerable period for the shaded frame. Throughput versus offered traffic for ALOHA systems. Comparison of the channel utilization versus load for various random access protocols. The basic bit-map protocol. The binary countdown protocol. A dash indicates silence. Acquisition probability for a symmetric contention channel. The tree for eight stations. Wavelength division multiple access. GSM uses 124 frequency channels, each of which use an eight-slot TDM system.
Informatika  Konspektai   (53 psl., 98,98 kB)
All the theory about the data link layer. Virtual communication. Actual communication. Placement of the data link protocol. Data sent by the network layer. Data after being character stuffed by the data link layer. Data passed to the network layer on the receiving side. Bit stuffing. Use of a Hamming code to correct burst errors. Calculation of the polynomial code checksum. Some definitions needed in the protocols to follow. An unrestricted simplex protocol. A simplex stop-and-wait protocol. A positive acknowledgement/retransmission protocol.
Informatika  Konspektai   (34 psl., 88,28 kB)
Channel allocation problem: static channel allocation, frequency division multiplexing - FDM - bandwidth of channel is divided into N equal sized portions, time division multiplexing - each user is statically allocated every Nth time slot, both techniques are very inefficient for environments with variable number of users and bursty traffic. Multiple Access Protocols: pure ALOHA, nodes can transmit frames at any instance of time, collisions are allowed - contention system, uniform frame size for all nodes.
Informatika  Pateiktys   (24 psl., 810,18 kB)
The Data Link Layer
2009-09-14
Data Link Layer Design Issues: types of service: unacknowledged connectionless service, acknowledged connectionless service, acknowledged connection-oriented service; framing: character count, starting and ending characters with character stuffing, starting and ending flags with bit stuffing, physical layer coding violations. Data Link Layer Design Issues: Error Control: acknowledgements, time-outs, frame sequencing; Flow control: f ast sender vs. slow receiver.
Informatika  Pateiktys   (26 psl., 596,31 kB)
The OSI Model: basic principles of layered architecture: each layer means different layer of abstraction, each layer should perform a well defined function, the functions of layer should promote standardization, the information flow across the interfaces should be minimized, the number of layers should be large enough to separate functionality and small enough to keep the architecture under control, introduced in 1983, the OSI model has seven layers, the OSI model is not a network architecture, it does not specify the exact services ant protocols.
Informatika  Pateiktys   (14 psl., 225,14 kB)
The TCP/IP Model: origins from ARPANET, DoD research network, ARPA - Advanced Research Projects Agency, reliability was the primary concern of design, IMP - interface message processor, the TCP/IP Model defined in 1974 for the first time. The Internet Layer: packet-switching, connectionless service, each packet is independently routed from source to destination, packet ordering issue, defines packet format, defines protocol - Internet Protocol.
Informatika  Pateiktys   (16 psl., 162,66 kB)
Computer network - interconnected collection of autonomous computers. Mainframe computer with terminals is not a computer network. Computer network is not a Distributed system. Distributed system is a software, built on top of a network. Networks for companies: resource sharing, high reliability, saving money, communication medium. Networks for people: access to remote information, person-to-person communication, interactive entertainment.
Informatika  Pateiktys   (19 psl., 530,76 kB)
Vocabulary. Definitions of key vocabulary. The means of marketing. Advertising. Advantages and disadvantages of major advertising media. Formulating of the advertising message. The role of the advertising in the promotional mix. Advertising as persuasion. Marketing influences and often actually controls almost every part of company's activities. Everyone who works for the company must “think marketing”. To think marketing we must understand in the right way what is the marketing concept.
Rinkodara  Konspektai   (32 psl., 212,25 kB)
William Shakespeare was born to John Shakespeare and mother Mary Arden some time in late April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. There is no record of his birth, but his baptism was recorded by the church, thus his birthday is assumed to be the 23 of April. His father was a prominent and prosperous alderman in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon, and was later granted a coat of arms by the College of Heralds. All that is known of Shakespeare's youth is that he presumably attended the Stratford Grammar School, and did not proceed to Oxford or Cambridge.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,82 kB)
Though we have a comprehensive site on the Pyramids of Egypt, this is a summary overview for those who would like to digest just a little less information. The Great Pyramids of Giza are some of the most famous manmade objects in the world, and they have been famous since ancient times. In fact, the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) is the only "Wonder of the Ancient World" that still survives.
Istorija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (3 psl., 43,39 kB)
According to tradition, the Olympic Games began in 776 B.C. when Ifitos made a treaty with Lycourgos the king and famous legislator of Sparta and Cleisthenes the king of Pissa. The text of the treaty was written on a disc and kept in the Heraion.
Sportas  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,89 kB)
Most homes in Britain and the US have a telephone, and many people also have a mobile phone that they carry round with them. As well as being useful to business people, mobiles are now a fashion accessory, especially among younger people. Many people, however, get annoyed with those who use mobile phones in public places, such as on trains or in restaurants. Many families now also have a computer and use it to search the Internet and send e-mails.
Elektronika  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 4,42 kB)
The Sahara is the world's second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2.5 million years old. The entire land area of the United States of America would fit inside it. Its name Sahara صحراء is the Arabic translation of the Tuareg word Tenere meaning desert.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 23,94 kB)
Rudyard Kipling, (1865-1936), English short-story writer, novelist and poet, remembered for his celebration of British imperialism and heroism in India and Burma. Kipling's glorification of the British Empire and racial prejudices, stated in his poem "The White Man's Burden" (1899), has repelled many readers. However he sounded a note of uncharacteristic humility and caution in "The Recessional" (1897).
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 4,14 kB)
Here are facts showing the dangers of eating meat because of the large amounts of antibiotics fed to livestock to control staphylococci (commonly called staph infections), which are becoming immune to these drugs at an alarming rate. The animals that are being raised for meat in the United States are diseased. The livestock industry attempts to control this disease by feeding the animals antibiotics. Huge quantities of drugs go for this purpose. Of all antibiotics used in the U.S., 55% are fed to livestock.
Located between the continents of North America, South America, Asia, Antarctica and Australia the Pacific Ocean is the largest of the world's four oceans. It covers approximately one-third of the surface of the earth, more surface area than all the continents combined. It is commonly divided at the Equator into the North Pacific and the South Pacific.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 32,34 kB)
The world's population will soon reach a level where there will not be enough resources to sustain life as we know it. Growth must be checked to avoid this catastrophe. Many environmental, social, and economic problems either stem from or are increased in magnitude by the overpopulation problem. With an exponentially increasing population, the problems created by overpopulation grow correspondingly.
Kita  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,66 kB)
LSD
2009-09-01
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the most potent hallucinogen known to science, as well as the most highly studied. LSD was originally synthesized in 1938 by Dr. Albert Hoffman. However, its hallucinogenic effects were unknown until 1943 when Hoffman accidentally consumed some LSD. It was later found that an oral dose of as little as 0.000025 grams (or 25 micrograms, equal in weight to a few grains of salt) is capable of producing rich and vivid hallucinations.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean. It is surrounded by southern Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, Africa, the Malay Peninsula, the Sunda Islands, Australia and Antartica. The 20° E meridian divides it from the Atlantic and the 147° E meridian divides it from the Pacific below Australia.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 18,05 kB)
Visitors to the US often think either that there is no real American food, only dishes borrowed from other countries, or else that Americans eat only *fast food. While there is some truth in both these impressions, real American food does exist. The British also have a poor reputation for food. Visitors to Britain often complain that food in restaurants is badly presented, overcooked and has no taste. But the best British food is not generally found in restaurants but in people's homes.
Cocaine (Kokainas)
2009-09-01
Cocaine's recent notoriety belies the fact that the drug has been used as a stimulant by people for thousands of years. Its properties as a stimulant have led people in the past to use it in a number of patent medicines and even in soft drinks. But cocaine's highly addictive nature and addicts' willingness to pay a high price for the drug have propelled it into the public eye. The crime and violence associated with its transportation and sale, and the celebrity nature of some of its victims has kept cocaine in the news.
Chemija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,9 kB)
The great Pyramid of the fourth dnasty King Khufu is the biggest Pyramid ever built and the highest monuement then known to man . The area it covers is vast enough to hold Europe’s Five biggest cathedrals. Millions of huge rocks were assembled by Kufre’s Faithful workmen to achieve this fabulous construction at the center of which, Khufu planned his inner chamber where his mummy was to lay for eternity .
Charles Dickens
2009-09-01
English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens's works are charactericized by attacks on social evils, unjustice, and hypocrisy. He had also experienced in his youth oppression, when he was forced to end school in early teens and work in a factory. Dickens's lively good, bad and comic characters, such as the cruel miser Scrooge, the aspiring novelist David Copperfield, or the trusting and innocent Mr. Pickwick, have fascinated generations of readers.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 5,19 kB)
The second largest of the world's four oceans is located between the continents of North and South America, Europe, Africa and Antarctica. It is also the youngest of the oceans and probably did not exist 100 million years ago. It covers about 20% of the Earth's surface, with an area of 82,362,000 sq km. It has an average depth of 3,926 m. The deepest spot is the Puerto Rico Trench which is 8,381 m.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 25,07 kB)
This, the smallest of the four oceans, lies almost entirely above the Arctic Circle (66.5° N). Nearly surrounded by land, its only outlets are the Bering Strait between Alaska and Russia, Davis Strait between Greenland and Canada, and Denmark Strait and the Norwegian Sea between Greenland and Europe. The Arctic Ocean has an area of 14,090,000 sq km and an average depth of 3,658 m off of the continental shelf.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 19,39 kB)
Acid rain" is a general name for many phenomena including acid fog, acid sleet, and acid snow. Although we associate the acid threat with rainy days, acid deposition occurs all the time, even on sunny days. Something is acidic if it has a low pH. The pH of a liquid is measured on a scale which ranges from 0 to 14 with 7.0 being neutral. Anything with a pH value lower than 7.0 is acidic, and anything higher than 7.0 is basic.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (3 psl., 6,71 kB)
Any examination of the history of the EV inevitably asks the question: "Why were they overtaken in popularity by gasoline -powered vehicles?" Let me take a few paragraphs to give you my opinion as to why electric vehicles have lost the war of numbers to their petrol - powered cousins and get this question out of the way. There is no one simple answer, but many facts contributed to the rise of the internal combustion engine and decline of the electric motor for the primacy of driving on road transportation.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (6 psl., 23 kB)
Buriavimo terminų žodynas su paaiškinimais angliškai ir lietuviškai. Longitude - Ilguma - viso 180 laipsnių į rytus ir 180 laipsnių į vakarus nuo Grinvičo meridiano. Meridian - Meridianas - menama linija, einanti nuo vieno žemės poliaus į kitą. Latitude - Platuma - viso 90 laipsnių į šiaurę ir 90 laipsnių į pietus nuo pusiaujo. Colregs - Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea.
Sportas  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (15 psl., 29,03 kB)
A child has few important days in his life. It`s a day, when he starts to sit, It`s a day, when he makes his first step, and It`s a day, when he says the first word. His first word is very important. The child`s life becomes more interesting. He knows more and more words, and he often says two words: “what`s that”, and ”why”. A child wants to know more about things around him, so these two words are the way to the knowledge. One language cannot give so much news, as few languages. More languages – more keys to open the door to the world.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,37 kB)
Margaret Thatcher
2009-08-20
She is first woman to hold the office of prime minister of Great Britain (1979-1990). She was born Margaret Hilda Roberts in Grantham and educated at the University of Oxford, where she earned degrees in chemistry; from 1947 to 1951 she worked as a research chemist. She married Denis Thatcher in 1951. In 1953, having studied for the bar, she became a tax lawyer. Joining the Conservative party, Thatcher was elected to the House of Commons in 1959. As minister of education and science from 1970 to 1974 under Edward Heath, she provoked a storm of protest by abolishing free milk in the schools. After the Conservative defeat in 1974, she challenged Heath for the leadership of the party and won the post in 1975.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 23,43 kB)
Lithuania is a very beautiful country. It is very rich with many plants and animals. But of course we must save what we have. The most beautiful part of nature is our thick forests. They cover 27,9% our all territory. So we can admire our woods. But they are not like they were 5 or 6 hundred ago. Then our forests were just inpassable and full of different animals. But many people have cut these beautiful woods and now we have only 18,000 separate plots. But now when people understand the threat of extinction and many organisations plant new pine forests.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 4,6 kB)
My dream country
2009-08-13
If I would get a chance to emigrate, I would like to go to live to USA. I think I would choose Hawaii. This paradise consists mainly of the Hawaiian Islands and other islets unrelated geographically to the archipelago. In all, there are eight main islands and 124 islets, reefs, and shoals. I would choose biggest island. This island is in southeastern Hawaii State; it’s the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, in the central Pacific Ocean.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,19 kB)
My native town
2009-08-12
I live in Lithuania. In town that is called Kaunas. Kaunas is second city in Lithuania. Kaunas is almost exactly in the center of Lithuania. It is highlighted by the valleys of the Nemunas and the Neris - two longest rivers in Lithuania. There live 600 thousand people. I think Kaunas is the most Lithuanian town, because there are about 90 percents people who are Lithuanian. Archaeologists determined that there were people living at the crossing of the Nemunas and the Neris rivers already in the 3rd or 4th century.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 6,16 kB)
Fire
2009-08-06
Fire fighting, techniques used to extinguish fires and limit the damage caused by them. Fire fighting consists of removing one or more of the three elements essential to combustion — fuel, heat, and oxygen — or of interrupting the combustion chain reaction. The Roman emperor Augustus is credited with instituting a corps of fire - fighting watchmen in 24 hours. Regulations for checking and preventing fires were developed. In the preindustrial era most cities had watchmen
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,59 kB)
Drugs
2009-08-06
Drug dependence. Opioids. Stimulants. Hallucinogens. Cannabis. Inhalants. Drug dependence, psychological and sometimes physical state characterized by a compulsion to take a drug in order to experience its psychological effects. Psychological dependence, or habituation, is present when the compulsion to take a drug is strong, even in the absence of physical withdrawal symptoms.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (6 psl., 124,12 kB)
English Tenses
2009-07-25
Anglų kalbos laikų lentelė.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 12,06 kB)
Lithuanian language
2009-07-25
Rašinėlis apie Lietuvių kalbą.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,63 kB)
100 anglų kalbos transformacijų. Gale yra atsakymai.
Anglų kalba  Testai   (13 psl., 34,24 kB)
Gramatikos taisyklės: Types of Questions, Writing a Letter, Modal Verbs, Writing a Paragraph, the English Tenses in the Active Voice, the English Tenses in the Passive Voice, a Letter of Complaint, the Usage of the Article in English, the Adjective, the Noun, Linking Words/Phrases, Conditional Sentences, Wishes, the Gerund.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (19 psl., 32,46 kB)
Pranešimas, rašinėlis anglų kalba. priklauso, kaip panaudosi. The living conditions in our city are getting worse and worse. Exhaust fumes and smoke from the factories are polluting the air. Furthermore, the rivers and sea are being polluted by chemicals from the factories and people are suffering from breathing difficulties and stomach problems. We should do something it is too late.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,62 kB)
Teenagers criminals
2009-07-16
Now teenagers commit more crimes then adult ones. Gangs of young criminals are increasing every day. What is the reason of that? The answer is one: family's instability, alcoholism, economical problems, depreciated schools and education, imperfect law system. In 1997 13 children aged from 5 to 10 year committed crimes and burglaries. In 1998 more then 28. Last year teenagers committed about 535 crimes. During one-year period delinquency raised 16.6%.
Teisė  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (3 psl., 17,22 kB)
Anglų kalbos kalbėjimo tema.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,39 kB)
My Ideal Home
2009-07-16
Anglų kalbos kalbėjimo tema.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 4,45 kB)
Present Indefinite. Past Indefinite. Future Indefinite. Future Indefinite In the Past. Present Continuous. Past Continuous. Future Continuous. Future Continuous in the Past. Perfect Tenses Present Perfect. Past Perfect. Future Perfect. Perfect Continuous Tenses. Present Perfect Continuous. Past Perfect Continuous. Future Perfect Continuous. Future Perfect Continuous in the Past. Present Indefinite vartojamas su laiko aplinkybėmis always, often, usually, regulary, daily, etc. Pavyzdžiui: I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (5 psl., 9,25 kB)
Turto draudimo sutarties samprata. Turto draudimo sutarties turinys. Esminės turto draudimo sutarties sąlygos. Įprastinės ir atsitiktinės turto draudimo sutarties sąlygos. Turto draudimo sutarties sudarymas ir pasibaigimas. Šiame darbe didžiausias dėmesys skiriamas turto draudimo sutarties reglamentacijai Lietuvos Respublikoje, draudimo įmonių praktikai draudimo rūšies taisyklėse nustatant turto draudimo sutarčių sąlygas, taip pat lyginamuoju aspektu bus atsižvelgiama į užsienio šalių (Anglijos, Rusijos ir Vokietijos ir kt.) patirtį. Įvadas
Teisė  Diplominiai darbai   (60 psl., 52,98 kB)
Clean up the World
2009-07-10
The work of ecology. Air’s pollution. Earht’s pollution. Water’s pollution. The End. Olden time’s people lived in accord with the nature. Later, when the humanity have created powerful machines, various chemical materials, learned to govern the nuclear energy, there appeared lots of ecological problems. The most important elements of our surroundings ­- air, water and soil are more and more polluted.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4 psl., 9,09 kB)
America
2009-07-10
Physical and human geography. The land. The people. The economy. Administration and social conditions. Cultural life. Admited to the Union as the 33rd state on Feb. 14, 1859, Oregon comprises an area of startling physical diversity, from the moist rain forests, mountains, and fertile valleys of its western third to the naturally arid and climatically harsh eastern deserts.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (4 psl., 9,04 kB)
3D Graphics cards. Keywords: 3D graphics, acceleration, antialiasing, alphatransparency, depth cueing, fogging, mipmapping, AGP, PCI, DirectX®, OpenGL®, Glide®, texture, frame buffer. Annotation.
Informatika  Namų darbai   (3 psl., 5,31 kB)
Šio darbo paskirtis yra įsisavinti organizacijų veiklos sisteminės analizės metodą, kuris skirtas organizacijos padalinių ir darbuotojų informacinių poreikių nustatymui ir specifikavimui. Namų darbas skirtas sisteminės analizės praktiniams įgūdžiams formuoti. Pagrindiniai atliktos sisteminės analizės rezultatai pateikiami namų darbo ataskaitoje, kurią ir sudaro lentelės, schemos ir trumpi jų aprašymai.
Vadyba  Namų darbai   (31 psl., 58,81 kB)
The relationship between crafts and design is difficult to define. You are faced with several issues as context and the definition of both: design and craft. According to the dictionary craft means- a special skill or ability. An occupation especially when that demands manual skills. And design means- a decorative or artistic work to plan by making preliminary sketches or outlines". Intentionally the dictionary makes both: craft and design sound like the same thing but really they are not, and in my essay I would like to look at their relationship through their differences and the context in which they are interpreted.
Dailė  Referatai   (3,56 kB)
Naturalism
2009-07-09
Who was in charge of judging Bad Design and how different were their takes? Focusing on three main figures within Victorian Design Culture: Pugin, Ruskin and Morris. The three most prominent Victorian architects and designers Ruskin, Morris and Pugin influenced and defined both the architecture and art of the Victorian period. Their ideas of beauty and correctness followed many strict rules, which have been established as the most influential and architectural structures of the Victorian Age.
Dailė  Referatai   (4,66 kB)
Entertainment
2009-07-09
In every century, in every age, after hard working people needed to do things that are making them feel good. This is what we call – entertainment. As every epoch has its own fashion, music style, political system, so it also has very distinctive types of entertainment. Let’s start with the very beginning of the human evolution. Yes, even Stone Age had several types of distraction. As we know, people of that time, used to hunt animals for food. It was not easy to hunt mammoths, wild boars or bears.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,84 kB)
Basketball
2009-07-09
Basketball appeared in Plunge in 1964. The first group of basketball players didn’t achieve any great victories. But still they were the foundators of basketball in our town. The leaders of the team in that time were Salys, Vosylius, Kiudulas and Leliūga. Salys had a good opportunity to join the national basketball team. The next generation of players had much more success. They had won the second place of the LKL championship for several times. From the very beginning their trainer was G.Glikmanas ant the second trainer was Augenijus Jurgutis.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,16 kB)
London
2009-07-09
London is packed full of accommodation options. You can stay in a five-star hotel, an intimate B&B (Bed & Breakfast), a self-catering apartment or a quality hostel. There is no shortage of beds and even in the luxurious and fashionable areas you might find something to suit your price range. Type of Room Double rooms, single rooms, twin rooms, family rooms… the choice can be overwhelming. Just know that London’s hotels offer a range of standard room configurations. Your hotel or B&B might offer simple singles and twins or may stretch to luxurious suites covering hundreds of square feet.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,49 kB)
Swimming
2009-07-09
Swimming, act of moving through the water by using the arms, legs, and body in motions called strokes. The most common strokes are the crawl, backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, and sidestroke. Swimming is an integral part of almost all water-based activities. It is also a competitive sport itself. Some scientists believe that human beings are born with an instinctive ability to use their arms and legs to stay afloat.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,29 kB)
One is not born, but rather becomes woman. No biological, physiological, or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society; it is civilization as a whole that produces this creature, intermediate between male and eunuch, which is described as feminine. But what was really position of woman in 1950s – 1960s. I overlook different women positions in western and communist nations.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,41 kB)
Lithuania
2009-07-09
Vilnius is the gateway to Lithuania and the Baltic States, being situated in an advantageous geographical location in Europe. The airport is within half an hour of the centre of the city. It has direct links with 18 cities and there is regular bus service to 7 countries. Vilnius is famous not only for its historical past, monuments, churches and green surroundings.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,75 kB)
Basketball
2009-07-09
Basketball is a ball sport in which two teams of five players each try to score points by throwing the ball through a basket. Basketball is highly suited to viewing by spectators, as it is primarily an indoor sport, played in a relatively small playing area, or "court," with only ten players, and using a large ball which is easy to follow. Additionally, the lack of protective gear makes it easy to see the reactions of the players. It is one of the most popular sports in the United States, and is also popular in other parts of the world, including South America, southern Europe, and the former Soviet Union, especially Lithuania.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,88 kB)
Three countries: Lithuania, The United Kingdom and The United States of America have their own government and laws. There are some points which are the same in the government of all three countries, but there are some which are different. I will try to show the difference and similarities in the systems of governments and how did the countries divide the power to different institutions.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,12 kB)
My company
2009-07-09
"Oil" internationally differentiates in its high operational and moral principles; the company is easy- to- reach for customers working within Europe and in other regions; it not only represents their interests, but also constantly searches for the possibilities to fulfill them better. With our regularity and high level of forwarding services, we seek to contribute to the inclusion of the Baltic region into the international transport corridors.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,14 kB)
The European Union (EU) is the European supranational organization dedicated to increasing economic integration and strengthening co-operation among its member states. At the moment EU counts countries, including Lithuania. Firstly, The European Union history established on 1 of November in 1993, when the treaty on European Union was ratified by the 12 members of the European Community.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (3,25 kB)
Nowadays the air, water and soil pollution have become a really big problem. Humanity thinks too little about natural resources and future of our descendants, as well as the world face, the disappearance of rainforests and global warming. The rapidly developing industry has polluted the air and the water. People, animals and plants are closely connected to each other. The usual order being broken, the nature starts to clean itself in a way that is harmful to the man himself.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (3,68 kB)
The Aim is to make a review on scientific literature. The Problem of the report is: The main causes of suicide; people’s condition who usually make it. Research methods used: I used closed questions because they allow respondents to answer the question very quickly, not using much time. In reason that findings would be more reliable I choose random sample. The majority of my respondents were students. There were 25 respondents, 68% of them were females and 32% males. The average of their age was 20.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,91 kB)
Air pollution
2009-07-09
I would like to talk about air pollution, becouse it is one of the major problems of the planet. Air pollution is made up of many kinds of gases, droplets and particles that reduce the quality of the air. Air can be polluted in both the city and the country. In the city, cars, buses and airplanes, as well as industry and construction may cause air pollution. In the country, dust from tractors plowing fields, trucks and cars driving on dirt or gravel roads, rock quarries and smoke from wood and crop fires may cause air pollution. Ground-level ozone is the major part of air pollution in most cities.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,85 kB)
Despite having only one per cent of the world’s population, Britain is the fourth largest trading nation in the world. Machinery and transport, manufactures and chemicals are Britain’s largest export earners. Since the 1970s, oil has contributed significantly to Britain’s overseas trade, both in exports and a reduced need to import oil. British Petroleum (BP) is Britain’s biggest and Europe’s second biggest industrial company.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,83 kB)
I read one article that psychologists did an experiment to answer the question of violence influence on kids in which they showed each of two groups of children a different version of a video tape: One group saw video A which showed a lady acting normally with a big doll. The second group saw video B which showed a lady acting aggressively with the same doll. She was kicking and hitting the doll violently.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,59 kB)
Body language
2009-07-09
Believe it or not, we speak to the world without saying a word through non-verbal communication. Almost every facet (aspect) of our personality is revealed (atskleisti) through our appearance, body language, gestures, facials expressions, demeanor (maniera), posture and movements. In our professional and personal lives, we’d like to think we could make friends and influence people if we verbally articulate our message with optimism, enthusiasm, charisma, poise (ramybe) and charm (zavumas).
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,82 kB)
The duke Gediminas who ruled in 1275-1341 built this castle. It was build after the dream of Gediminas. The duke dreamed en enormous iron wolf, who was howling very loud in the junction of the river Neris and Vilnia. The precursor predicted that in this place would grow powerful and strong town. He also added that Gediminas had to build a castle in the place where he so that wolf. Now the Gediminas castle is a historical museum. There you can find many interesting exhibits of Lithuania’s history.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (2,87 kB)
Chernobyl accident
2009-07-09
• The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was the result of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel and without proper regard for safety. • The resulting steam explosion and fire released about five percent of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere and downwind. • 30 people were killed, and there have since been up to ten deaths from thyroid cancer due to the accident. • An authoritative UN report in 2000 confirmed that there is no scientific evidence of any significant radiation-related health effects to most people exposed.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (5,28 kB)
Big city problems
2009-07-09
Since the foundation of Sćo Paulo, flood caused by summer rains has always been a serious problem, almost paralyzing the whole city. Year after year, many people die during these tropical rains, which devastate large areas of the city. 2000 was no exception. In March, inside the Anhangabaś Tunnel, in the downtown area, more than 160 vehicles got blocked by the rising water and were submerged as the tunnel flooded and the pumps didn't work fast enough. All over the city 14 people died and lots of houses and shops were invaded by mud and water.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,1 kB)
Pygmalion Summary
2009-07-09
Two old gentlemen meet in the rain one night at Covent Garden. Professor Higgins is a scientist of phonetics, and Colonel Pickering is a linguist of Indian dialects. The first bets the other that he can, with his knowledge of phonetics, convince high London society that, in a matter of months, he will be able to transform the cockney speaking Covent Garden flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, into a woman as poised and well-spoken as a duchess. The next morning, the girl appears at his laboratory on Wimpole Street to ask for speech lessons, offering to pay a shilling, so that she may speak properly enough to work in a flower shop.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,47 kB)
Privatization process was launched in Lithuania in September 1991 and since then it has constituted an integral part of Lithuania's economic reforms. The entire privatization process may be divided into three major stages: • The first stage covers the privatization that took place from September 1991 until July 1995. This phase may be called a mass privatization for vouchers with some elements of cash sales. The voucher method was chosen as the most effective way of transferring the ownership of the state-owned enterprises.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,3 kB)
The True Religion
2009-07-09
The first thing that one should know and clearly understand about Islam is what the word "Islam" itself means. The religion of Islam is not named after a person as in the case of Christianity which was named after Jesus Christ, Buddhism after Gotama Buddha, Confucianism after Confucius, and Marxism after Karl Marx. Nor was it named after a tribe like Judaism after the tribe of Judah and Hinduism after the Hindus. Islam is the true religion of "Allah" and as such, its name represents the central principle of Allah's "God's" religion; the total submission to the will of Allah "God".
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (6,02 kB)
Describing people
2009-07-09
A descriptive essay about a person should consist of: a) an Introduction in which you give general information about the person, saying when, where and how you first met them; b) a Main Body in which you describe their physical appearance, personal qualities and hobbies/interest. You start a new paragraph for each topic; c) a Conclusion in which you write your comments and/or feelings about the person.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (1,86 kB)
In 1979 Margaret Thatcher became the first woman to serve as prime minister of Great Britain, a post she held until 1990. Thatcher rose to office with promises to restore Britain’s economic prosperity, and she worked toward this goal by selling and privatizing many government-owned industries. Thatcher’s tenure as prime minister included leading Britain to victory over Argentina in the brief military dispute over the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands in 1982.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (2,76 kB)
If someone were to look through your bedroom, what do you hope your possessions would convey about you? A typical teen’s room? In some respects, yes, but in many ways, my room has become an extension of my personality, interests and values. Upon entering, one would probably notice the lack of any music group, scantily clad female model, or indeed, any adornment at all on my walls. I prefer the unsoiled look of clean walls, which provide a sense of calm. However, my room is far from military precision and order;
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (2,83 kB)
Mass Media
2009-07-09
For our ordinary life are very important informations. We need informations about local, home and international political, social and sporst events. The biggets and most important sources of information are mass media. To mass media belong nawspapers, radio,television and internet. Newspaper. In Britiain the national newspapers are very important.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,77 kB)
Hip-Hop istorija
2009-07-09
HIP-HOP - šis dviejų paprastų žodžių junginys šiandien yra įgijęs nepaprastą reikšmę ne tik muzikoje, bet ir nemažos dalies jaunimo gyvenime. O viskas prasidėjo visiškai nekaltai - nuo mažos kibirkšties. Kai Niujorko gatvėse vaikai šoko breiką, ar kažką panašaus į tai, kai didžėjai vakarėlių metu "išsidirbinėjo" su plokštelėmis, o MCs su mikrofonais, kai namų sienos ir traukinių vagonai nusidažė įvairiomis spalvomis, niekas net neįsivaizdavo, kad visa tai išaugs į tokį kultūrinį judėjimą, kuris išpopuliarės visame pasaulyje.
Muzika  Konspektai   (5,71 kB)
Lithuania
2009-07-09
Lithuania is situated on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and borders Latvia on the north, Belarus on the east and south, and Poland and the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the southwest. It is a country of gently rolling hills, many forests, rivers and streams, and lakes. Its principal natural resource is agricultural land. Government. Parliamentary democracy. History. The Liths, or Lithuanians, united in the 12th century under the rule of Mindaugas, who became king in 1251.
Geografija  Referatai   (9,82 kB)
SIngapore
2009-07-09
Singapore founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe. Singapore is a city-country, locating in the south of Malaya.
Geografija  Namų darbai   (6,35 kB)
Feminizmas
2009-07-09
Feminizmą galima apibrėžti įvairiai. Kiekvienas žmogus jį supranta skirtingai. Feministes kai kurie keikia (dažniausiai vyrai), tačiau ištikrųjų net nežino, ką reiškia būti feministe. Čia pateikiami įvairūs feminizmo apibūdinimai trumpai, kad galėtumėte susipažinti su šiuo judėjimu: Feminizmas, kaip visuomeninis judėjimas, kovojo dėl moterų emancipacijos ir siekė įtvirtinti moterų veiklą.
Lietuvių kalba  Referatai   (20,95 kB)
Taikos ir konfliktų studijos – tai kursas, skirtas magistro programos pirmojo kurso studentams. Šiame kurse detaliai apžvelgiamos taikos ir konfliktų teorijos, karo paplitimo problematika bei karų priežastys, jų geografinis pasiskirstymas, trumpai pristatoma karų istorija. Ypatingas dėmesys bus skiriamas įvairioms prievartos formoms, agresyvumo ir konfliktų priežastims, konfliktų sprendimams ir prevencijai. Kursas turėtų padėti klausytojams geriau suprasti karo ir taikos, tarptautinių ir vidinių konfliktų problematiką. Išklausę kursą studentai turėtų mokėti pateikti prievartos ir grėsmių analizę, suprasti karo ir konfliktų priežastis, grėsmių poveikį skirtingų lygių subjektams, interpretuoti konfliktų sprendimų ir prevencijos galimybes.
Lietuvių kalba  Analizės   (6,79 kB)
William Shakespeare
2009-07-09
Shakespeare, William (1564-1616), English poet and playwright, recognized in much of the world as the greatest of all dramatists. A complete, authoritative account of Shakespeare’s life is lacking; much supposition surrounds relatively few facts. His day of birth is traditionally held to be April 23; it is known he was baptized on April 26, 1564, in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire.
Kita  Konspektai   (4,52 kB)
Marketingo planas
2009-07-09
Paslaugų verslas ekonomikoje pradeda užimti vis svarbesnę vietą. Paslaugos ir prekės parduodamos rinkoje. Jos tenkina pirkėjų norus, poreikius, padeda užbaigti prekių gamybos ir jų vartojimo paskirties ciklą, tiesiogine ar netiesiogine prasme priartina prekes prie vartotojo. Didėjanti paslaugų sektoriaus apimtis ir reikšmė šiandienos visuomenėje pradėjo naują erą. Daugelyje pasaulio šalių paslaugos yra laikomos pagrindiniu ekonomikos produktyvumo šaltiniu, kuris susijęs su naujų prekių ir paslaugų atsiradimu, jų gamybos sistemų kūrimu, ryšių su paslaugų vartotojais organizavimu, palaikymu ir t. t.
Rinkodara  Kursiniai darbai   (4,39 kB)
Puerto Rikas
2009-07-09
Even though Puerto Rico has three times voted against becoming a U.S. state, yet another effort is being made to persuade Puerto Rico to change its mind. Of course, the Democratic Party thinks making Puerto Rico our 51st state is a cool idea because that would give the Democrats two additional U.S. Senators and 6 to 8 additional Members of the House, more congressional representation than 25 of our 50 states.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,55 kB)
In this paper I want to express my opinion about George Weigel point of view that Central and East Europe is the best hope for the future of Europe. In one point of view I have to agree with G. Weigel, that “history is driven, over the long haul, by culture – by what men and women honor, cherish, and worship; by what societies deem to be true and good and noble; by the expressions they give to those convictions in language, literature, and the arts; by what individuals and societies are willing to stake their lives on” ( “The Cube and the Cathedral”; p. 30).
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,06 kB)
Islam in Europe
2009-07-09
Islam is one of the four major religions in the world. The beginning of Islam as a religion is dated back to the 7th century. Nevertheless, the people have many stereotypes and misconceptions about Islam. It is often looked upon as a “terrorist”, “extremist” or “fundamental” religion. Muslims claims, that in contrast, what many people think of Islam, it is still a peaceful religion, which does not promote any forms of terrorist actions.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,55 kB)
Vitamins
2009-07-09
All living things, plant or animal, need vitamins for health, growth, and reproduction. Yet vitamins are not a source of calories and do not contribute significantly to body mass. The plant or animal uses vitamins as tools in processes that regulate chemical activities in the organism and that use basic food elements-carbohydrates, fats, and proteins-to form tissues and to produce energy.Vitamins can be used over and over, and only tiny amounts are needed to replace those that are lost.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,99 kB)
Bill Gates
2009-07-09
William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is the co-founder, chairman, and chief software architect of Microsoft Corporation, the world's largest software company (as of April 2006). He is also the founder of Corbis, a digital image archiving company. Gates is the wealthiest individual in the world according to the Forbes 2006 list. When family wealth is considered, he is second behind the Walton family, which The Sunday Times represents by Robson Walton.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,21 kB)
Giorgio Armani is the world's second largest selling designer (the first is Ralph Lauren) who sells approx. $ 2 billion per year retail. His products are sold in over 100 countries. He has reached this position because everyone looks fabulous when they wear Armani, they feel so confident, so chic and yet so utterly(visiskai) themselves. It is like magic. He is the magician. 1934 Giorgio Armani was born in Piacanza, Italy, an industrial town about 20 miles south of Milan. He was the son of Marie and Ugo Armani.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (3,89 kB)
Living Well
2009-07-09
There are two big problems in our life: people eating bad balanced food ar outher thei smoking. Health is the most important thing in a person’s life. Eating habits is a big part of a healthy life, so to keep yourself in a healthy way you have to eat only healthy and well-balanced food. In the first place, I should say that fruit and vegetables is the main component of food which you have to eat in order to stay healthy.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,05 kB)
"[W]e find that testing students who participate in extracurricular activities is a reasonably effective means of addressing the School District’s legitimate concerns in preventing, deterring, and detecting drug use." Justice Clarence Thomas U.S. Supreme Court JUNE 27, 2002 Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls Foreword In June 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court broadened the authority of public schools to test students for illegal drugs.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,03 kB)
Sugar
2009-07-09
The English word "sugar" may ultimately originate from the Sanskrit word sharkara or sarkara, which means "sugar" or "pebble". It probably came to English by way of the French, Spanish and/or Italians who derived their word for sugar from the Arabic al sukkar (whence the Portuguese word aзucar, the Spanish word azъcar, the Italian word zucchero, the Old French word zuchre and the contemporary French word sucre).
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,01 kB)
An ability to communicate without experiencing any difficulties is essential for building successful and easy life. Both professional and private individual’s lives depend on the way one manages to communicate. Almost every employer thinks highly of somebody who is communicative, especially if one’s duty is to deal with other people. What is more, communicative person’s private life is much easier because of having no retardations in establishing relations with other people.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,4 kB)
About dinosaurs
2009-07-09
One of the smallest dinosaurs known, Compsognathus grew only about as large as a chicken, but with a length of about 60–90 cm (2–3 feet), including the long tail, and a weight of about 5.5 kg (12 pounds). A swift runner, it was lightly built and had a long neck and tail, strong hind… The Compsognathus is the smallest dinosaur in the Jurassic Period. It only ran on its two back legs. Its shape allows it to run fast and swiftly. This can help it to run from all the predators. Its top speed was twetny-five miles per hour. It was the size of a chicken. It was only two and a half feet long including the tail. its height was only one foot tall. It weighed only ten pounds.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,12 kB)
Acid Rain
2009-07-09
Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United States.
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Ford Company
2009-07-09
In the Beginning The story of Henry Ford is not of a prodigy entrepreneur or an overnight success. Ford grew up on a farm and might easily have remained in agriculture. But something stronger pulled at Ford's imagination: mechanics, machinery, understanding how things worked and what new possibilities lay in store. As a young boy, he took apart everything he got his hands on. He quickly became known around the neighborhood for fixing people's watches. In 1896, Ford invented the Quadricycle. It was the first "horseless carriage" that he actually built.
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A variety of environmental problems now affect our entire world. As globalization continues and the earth's natural processes transform local problems into international issues, few societies are being left untouched by major environmental problems. Some of the largest problems now affecting the world are Acid Rain, Air Pollution, Global Warming, Hazardous Waste, Ozone Depletion, Smog, Water Pollution, Overpopulation, and Rain Forest Destruction. Every environmental problem has causes, numerous effects, and most importantly, a solution. Our climate is changing.
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Ireland
2009-07-09
The Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann) is the official description[1] of the sovereign state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, off the coast of north-west Europe. The state's official name is Ireland (Irish: Éire),[2] and this is how international organisations and citizens of Ireland usually refer to the country. It is a member of the European Union, has a developed economy and a population of slightly more than 4.2 million. The remaining sixth of the island of Ireland is known as Northern Ireland and is part of the United Kingdom.
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Laikų naudojimas
2009-07-09
Present Simple Use 1.To express an action that happens again and again, that is a habit. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends. 2.To express a fact which is always true. Rockets fly faster than airplanes. Expressions: always every day usually sometimes never Present Continuous Use: 1.to express an activity that is happening at the moment of speaking What are you doing now?
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Present Unreal Conditional If I have time, I study English. (Sometimes I have time.) If I had time, I would study English. (I don't have time.) Past Real Conditional Past Unreal Conditional If I had time, I studied English. (Somtimes I had time.) If I had had time, I would have studied English. (I didn't have time.) Future Real Conditional Future Unreal Conditional If I have time, I will study English. If I have time, I am going to study English. (I don't know if I will have time or not.
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Coca Cola company
2009-07-09
Today we won‘t take up more that 20 minutes of your time so won‘t waste time and let‘s get down to business. Our first point is to give some background information about Coca Cola history and heritage. Then we‘ll give you some facts about companies products and their changes over existence. We are sure you will be of particular interest to those products. And finally we will reveal the secret formula of coca cola company success. So I am pleased to be able to welcome you to our company.
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Nightclub is a business that is open at least twice a week and provides some type of regularly scheduled entertainment. It usually has an area for dancing if it is a dance club or a stage where patrons may observe entertainment such as live bands, comedy, magic, exotic dancers, etc. Most clubs serve alcoholic beverages and may or may not have dining. Night clubs have become the new fad in town!
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The Tower Of London
2009-07-09
The Tower of London has a very interesting story behind it. It was begun by a man who was not even English, William of Normandy. At the time he was the cousin of England's King Edward. It all started because William became outraged when Edward backed down on his promise to give the throne to William and ended up giving the throne to his English brother-in-law, Harold. William sailed his army across the English Channel to conquer England.
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Ernest Hemingway
2009-07-09
Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), born in Oak Park, Illinois, started his career as a writer in a newspaper office in Kansas City at the age of seventeen. Before the United States entered the First World War, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in the Italian army. Serving at the front, he was wounded, was decorated by the Italian Government, and spent considerable time in hospitals. After his return to the United States, he became a reporter for Canadian and American newspapers and was soon sent back to Europe to cover such events as the Greek Revolution. During the twenties, Hemingway became a member of the group of expatriate Americans in Paris, which he described in his first important work, The Sun Also Rises (1926).
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William Shakespeare Biography describes the life of William Shakespeare. From birth to death, Shakespeare Biography describes all that is known about Shakespeare's life from available documentation including court and church records, marriage certificates and criticisms by Shakespeare's rivals.Shakespeare (1564-1616): Who was he? Though William Shakespeare is recognized as one of literature’s greatest influences, very little is actually known about him.
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American English
2009-07-09
In the early part of the seventeenth century English settlers began to bring their language to America, and another series of changes began to take place. The settlers borrowed words from Indian languages for such strange trees as the hickory and persimmon, such unfamiliar animals as raccoons and woodchucks. Later they borrowed other words from settlers from other countries – for instance, chowder and prairie from the French, scow and sleigh from the Dutch.
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Computers at home
2009-07-09
People who have a computer at home say it makes them more productive at the office according to a new survey for the Office of the e-Envoy. And three-quarters say it helps them to achieve greater work-life balance. According to people polled in the survey who were asked how having a computer at home may have helped their employer, 61% have improved their IT skills, 65% are more familiar with the Internet and 51% have learned skills at home which help them at work.
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Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy in 1451. Living by the Mediterranean Sea he longed to be a sailor. He began sailing on Italian ships at the age of 14. When Columbus was 25 he was sailing on a ship headed for England. A group of French pirates attacked his ship. Columbus was hurt, but managed to grab onto some floating wood and make his way to shore. Columbus opened a shop that sold maps and books for sailors.
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Global warming
2009-07-09
Global warming is a big problem in nowadays world. It caused by an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This phenomenon lead to significiant changes in the Earth’s climate. I want to explain greenhouse effect. The Earth gets heat from the sun. Most of sun’s energy absorbed [abz’obd] by the Earth, but some heat radiates back to space. Certain gases in the atmosphere reflect part of this heat back to the Earth’s surface. The result is an overall rise in temperature.
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Law
2009-07-09
Descriptive law is when it describes how people, or even natural phenomena, ussually behave. Prescriptive law – it prescribes how people ought to behave. For example, the speed limits imposed upon drivers are laws that prescribe how fast we should...
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Adjective clauses
2009-07-09
To understand what an adjective clause is, we need to understand what adjectives and clauses are. Most of you probably know what an adjective is. In English, adjectives are used to modify or describe nouns. For example, adjectives can show size, color, emotion, and quantity. Here are some sentences with adjectives. Can you identify them?
A blue Christmas
2009-07-09
It was Christmas Eve and Mrs. Wilson, an elderly woman, was sitting in her rocking chair, listening to Christmas carols on her radio. This was a family tradition that went on for many, many years. Christmas just wasn't Christmas in the Wilson household without listening to carols on the radio. "Oh my!" she sighed. "I'm so lonely. I wish my son, Paul were here to share Christmas with me!" Mrs. Wilson lived alone in a small apartment.
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Sparkling river in front of your eyes, blinding sunshine, a few boats rowing in the calm water and 35 degrees above zero. You’re just lying on the lawn near some kind of palace… You turn right, look at your friend and think, that it is a marvellous day. People are staring at you, but you don’t care… Actually you should be at the caves of stalagmites and stalactites at this moment, because you planned this yesterday, but such a beautiful day you won’t miss in some kind of cave… Aren’t you amazed?
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Lithuanians like to eat good, tasty and filling foods. The tradition of eating well is inherited from our ancestors, who would say, he who eats well, works well. Lithuanian cooks prepare simple but tasty foods. A good cook can create delicious meals using simple ingredients. It is said that each cook stirs the cookpot in her manner. The traditional food preparer was and is mother, her knowledge and capabilities are handed down to the next female generation. Before food was prepared using only seasonal products, however during the last twenty-five years, fresh fruit, vegetables and herbs have been available all year round, imported or grown locally.
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Food and drink
2009-07-09
Health is the most important thing in a person’s life. Eating habits is a big part of a healthy life, so to keep yourself in a healthy way you have to eat only healthy and well-balanced food. Lithuanians like to eat good, tasty and filling foods. The tradition of eating well is inherited from our ancestors, who would say, he who eats well, works well. Lithuanian cooks prepare simple but tasty foods. A good cook can create delicious meals using simple ingredients.
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Managing people
2009-07-09
Nowadays managing is very important in our life. Everyone wants to manage, but not everybody can be good managers. John Peet, British Management Consultant said that management problems always turn out to be people problems. In our life are three main styles of managing: it is authoritarian, democratic and liberal. Good managers must have a cross-cultural awareness. It is very important to realize other country’s mores and understand differences between countries.
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Notions of language
2009-07-09
A language is a system, used for communication, comprising a finite set of arbitrary symbols and a set of rules (or grammar) by which the manipulation of these symbols is governed. These symbols can be combined productively to convey new information, distinguishing languages from other forms of communication. The word language (without an article) can also refer to the use of such systems as a phenomenon.
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One of the most striking features about India, which any foreign traveler must appreciate, is the size and diversity of this country. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of size, with a total landmass of 3,287,590 sq km. Located in South Asia, it has land boundary of 14,107 km with its neighbours [Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, Burma, Nepal and Bhutan] and a coastline of 7,000 km, which stretches across the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean. India is a country of both diversity and continuity.
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An idiom is a special kind of phrase. It is a group of words which have a different meaning when used together from the one it would have if the meaning of each word were taken individually. If you do not know that the words have a special meaning together, you may well misinterpret what someone is saying, or be puzzled by why they are saying something that is untrue or irrelevant.
Milk product
2009-07-09
Milk, yogurt and ice cream are excellent sources of calcium and protein. But remember to check the label to see how much fat each product contains. The amount of fat affects the number of calories in each product. • Milk and milk products are a source of protein, calcium, zinc and magnesium, vitamin B12 and riboflavin. • Vitamins A and D are found in whole milk and its products • Milk and milk products are the major source of calcium in the UK, contributing 43% of calcium intake in adults.
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Building materials
2009-07-09
The principal early building material of civilization was brick, most often unfired. According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, brick is an artificial stone made by forming clay into rectangular blocks which are hardened, either by burning in a kiln or sometimes, in warm countries, by sun-drying. History. The history of bricks dates back 7,500 B.C, when the oldest shaped bricks were found in the upper Tigris area in south east Anatolia. The inven¬tion of the fired brick as opposed to the consid¬erably earlier sun-dried mud brick is believed to have arisen in about the third millennium BC in the Middle East.
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This section describes why leaders exist and what knowledge, skills, and abilities are important to manage learning. We know, to begin, that leaders exist because man is a social creature. The leader in our society is responsible for the essential tasks in the collections of groups that make up civilization. In most traditional or conventional training events, because of a lack of systematic programming, most of the emphasis is focused on attempts to change people's perception. Little time is usually allocated for practice and even less to measure changes in performance during the training situation.
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Lithuania's nature is as beautiful as it is diverse. The country's national parks reflect the landscape and culture of its large geographical areas. The thirty regional parks protect and represent the most valuable ecosystems and cultural treasures of different regions from natural, ethno cultural, recreational and aesthetic points of view. The wide variety of wildlife in the parks includes the protected species of animals listed in THE RED DATA BOOK (Lithuania's endangered species list), and rare plants. Research programmes are being carried out in the parks' sanctuaries and reserves. Large areas have been designated as recreational sites.
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Cat's
2009-07-09
A group of cats is referred to as a clowder, a male cat is called a tom, and a female is called a queen. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire, and its female progenitor is its dam. An immature cat is called a kitten (which is also an alternative name for young rats, rabbits, hedgehogs, beavers, squirrels and skunks). In medieval Britain, the word kitten was interchangeable with the word catling. A cat whose ancestry is formally registered is called a pedigreed cat, purebred cat, or a show cat (although not all show cats are pedigreed or purebred). In strict terms, a purebred cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed.
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Business Dress code
2009-07-09
We would like to present for you business dress code. Of course, we know, that your knowledge about clothing is really wide, but in the lecture there were a lot of discussions about it, so we are going to explain why the dress code is so important in the offices or in another workplace. First of all, I think, that everyone knows, this old phrase: "You will never get a second chance to make the first impression”. As a business executive, you have a responsibility to send the best professional message you can be successful.
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European Union
2009-07-09
The European Union is the European supranational organization dedicated to increasing economic integration and strengthening co-operation among its member states. It was established on November 1, 1993, when the Treaty on Eu was ratified by the 12 members of the European Community (EC) – Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Under the treaty on EU, customs and immigration agreements were enhanced to allow European citizens greater freedom to live, work, or study in any of the member states, and border controls were relaxed.
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The great pyramid is believed to have been built over a 20 year period. The site was first prepared, and blocks of stone were transported and placed. An outer casing (which disappeared over the years) was then used to smooth the surface. Although it is not known how the blocks were put in place. One theory involves the construction of a straight or spiral ramp that was raised as the construction proceeded. This ramp, coated with mud and water, eased the displacement of the blocks which were pushed (or pulled) into place. A second theory suggests that the blocks were placed using long levers with a short angled foot.
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New Year
2009-07-09
New Year - conditional start of the Calendar year. Ancient Lithuanian, national holidays calendar, shows that the beginning of the New Year during ancient times had no fixed date. According to ethnographers’ thinking, the abundant agrarian rites with sun and fire elements of worship, winter’s burial, preparation for spring works traditions could signify the New Year start. Later the new Year was identified with Easter, which is bound with plant vegetation and start of outdoor work.
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Christmas
2009-07-09
Father Christmas is our version of Santa Claus. He is an old jolly man with white hair, a beard and a moustache. He is dressed in a red* suit outlined in white. Father Christmas and his elves make all the toys for Christmas in his home in the North Pole. The Christmas trees, during the Victorian times, were decorated with candles to remind children of the stars in the sky at the time of the birth of Jesus. Using candles was, of course, a great fire hazard. Christmas trees were also decorated with candies and cakes hung with ribbon.
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Egypt
2009-07-09
Capital – CAIRO Area – 1001 450 km² Populate number – 66 100 000. Language – Arabic. Basic religion – Islam 94% , Other 6% Government – Many parties democracy. Monetary unit – Egypt pound. Literate – 50% Life duration – 61 years. People for 1 doctor – 1320. TVs for 1000 people – 109. Longest river – Nile (this river longest in the world). Egyptian History. gypt is one of the most fertile areas of Africa, and one of the most fertile of the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. Because it is so fertile, people came to live in Egypt earlier than in most places, probably around 40,000 years ago.
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Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Southern Europe, with two small exclaves in North Africa (both bordering Morocco). The mainland of Spain is bounded on the south and east by Mediterranean Sea (containing the Balearic Islands), on the north by the Bay of Biscay and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean (containing the Canary Islands off the African coast). Spain shares land borders with Portugal, France, Andorra, Gibraltar and Morocco. It is the largest of three sovereign states that make up the Iberian Peninsula — the others being Portugal and Andorra.
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Dejavu
2009-07-09
The term déją vu is French and means, literally, "already seen." Those who have experienced the feeling describe it as an overwhelming sense of familiarity with something that shouldn't be familiar at all. Say, for example, you are traveling to England for the first time. You are touring a cathedral, and suddenly it seems as if you have been in that very spot before. Or maybe you are having dinner with a group of friends, discussing some current political topic, and you have the feeling that you've already experienced this very thing -- same friends, same dinner, same topic.
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Galsworthy’s trilogy – The Man of Property, In Chancery, To Let – concerns an upper middle-class English family and traces, through the story of a group of related characters, the changing aspects of manners and morals from the Victorian age to the period between wars. In his preface john Galsworthy points to the general theme of the series – the disturbance that beauty creates in the lives of men, as exemplified by the story of Irene. The story: In 1886 all the Forsytes gathered at Old Jolyon Forsyte’s house to celebrate the engagement of his granddaughter, June, to Philip Bosinney, a young architect.
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Interesting Jobs
2009-07-09
The fact is well-known that unemployment is the most important and threatening problem in the whole world. In addition to this I am able to add that unemployment in Lithuania is still growing. This fact illustrates that choosing the type of career is the most responsible decision in person's life. In case I have a possibility to choose computer programmer's, lawyer's or teacher's profession, I am absolutely decided to choose teacher's profession when I was in nineth form. There are many reasons why I chose this profession.
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Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio. Nickname Leo. Height 5' 11" (1.80 m). Mini biography. His name allegedly derives from his German mother Irmalin's having experienced a sudden kick from her unborn boy while enjoying a DaVinci painting at the Uffizi. In the year following his birth, she and his Italian father, George, were divorced. He grew up in Echo Park, then a particularly seedy, drug-dominated area of Los Angeles.
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William Bradley Pitt. Height 5' 11" (1.80 m). Mini biography Brad Pitt was born in Oklahoma and raised in Springfield, Missouri. His mother's name is Jane. His father, Bill, worked in management at a trucking firm in Springfield. At Kickapoo High School, Pitt was involved in sports, debating, student government and school musicals. Pitt attended the University of Missouri, where he majored in journalism with a focus on advertising.
Once lived boy named John. He was 14 year old. The boy was very friendly and helpful. John and his parents lived in a villge. They had a big farm with a lot of land and livestock. One morning John and his father were going to the market to sell some vegetables and fruits they had grown. It was very cold. The roads were iceovered. However they were being late so they were in a hurry. The engine were roarring. Suddenly the car stardet skiding from side to side.
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Did you know that the can opener was invented 48 years after cans were introduced? Cans were opened with a hammer and chisel before the advent of can openers. A Londoner, Peter Durand, invented the tin canister, or can, in 1810 for preserving food. There were no can openers yet, and the products labels would read: "cut around on the top near to outer edge with a chisel and hammer." The first can opener was invented in 1858 by American Ezra Warned. The well-known wheel-style opener was invented in 1925. Beer in a can was launched in 1935.
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Discuss the following statements. Which of them could be used to define culture? Before reading the text, explain in your own words what is meant by culture. Work in small groups or pairs and then share your ideas in the classroom .
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Signs of the Zodiac
2009-07-09
Aries (March 21-April 19) Element: Fire Modality: Cardinal Ruling Planet: Mars, Pluto Part of Body: Head, skull sinuses, jaws. Herbs: Pepper, garlic, hemp, poppy, holly, thistle, onion, fern, mustard. Stones: Bloodstone, ocher, diamond, ruby. Keywords: Self, ego, imitative, action, courageous, pioneering, adventurous, freedom-loving, independent. Business Types: Exploration, design, engineering, athletics. Aries starts off the Zodiac, and it is self-motivation that is the hallmark of this sign.
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If you are on the move, America is the home of fast food. Enjoy a certain déjà vu as you sink your teeth into a McDonald's, Burger King, KFC or Pizza Hut menu or just a faint recognition at Jack in the Box, Wendy's or Taco Bell, the Mexican food takeaway. The hamburger is still king of fast food. For a healthier kind of fast food, don't miss America's legendary delicatessens (delis) - the best of which serve fantastic gourmet sandwiches and salads. Chose your sandwich - hoagie or sub (French bread), club (three slices of toast with fillings sandwiched in between), rye (black rye bread) or bagel and fill it up with cream cheese and lox (smoked salmon), chicken, pastrami (smoked beef), tuna or egg. As befits the American "melting pot" the range of ethnic cuisine on offer is vast - both at fast-food take outs and serious restaurants.
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Past Simple • Naudojamas reikšti veiksmams, kurie įvyko tam tikru metu praeityje. Kai laikas yra nustatytas, jau žinomas, ar numanomas. Sheila arrived in Tokyo last week. • Veiksmams, kurie praeityje eina vienas po kito. He got out of bed, went to the kitchen and turned on the coffee machine. • Praėjusioms būsenoms, ar įpročiams reikšti, kurie jie yra baigęsi. Gali būti naudojamas išsireiškimas used to. I lived/used to live in France five years ago.
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Business Ethics
2009-07-09
Business ethics is a form of applied ethics, a branch of philosophy. As such, it takes the ethical concepts and principles developed at a more theoretical, philsophical level, and applies them to specific business situations. Generally speaking, business ethics is a normative discipline, whereby particular ethical standards are assumed and then applied. It makes specific judgements about what is right or wrong, which is to say, it makes claims about what ought to be done or what ought not to be done. While there are some exceptions, business ethicists are usually less concerned with the foundations of ethics (metaethics), or with justifying the most basic ethical principles, and are more concerned with practical problems and applications, and any specific duties that might apply to business relationships.
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Volcanism
2009-07-09
The World Organization of Volcano Observatories was established as the result of a meeting of representatives from world-wide volcano observatories, held in Guadeloupe in 1981. WOVO became International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior Commission in the following year.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,7 kB)
Planets
2009-07-09
For over fifty years, a number of nations have been involved in the exploration of outer space. This research is very costly. Has this money been well-spent or wasted? Some people believe that most space research should be eliminated because of its expense. These people point out the fact that it costs billions of dollars to send astronauts to the moon, but all they bring are some worthless rocks. These people say that the money wasted in outer space could be spent on more important projects on earth, such as providing housing for homeless people, improving the education system, saving the environment, finding cures for diseases.
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Crime
2009-07-09
Today’s teenagers have many drugs in their bodies crack, cocaine and many deadly weapons in their hands. Guns in the guns of teenagers and violence on TV and in films may be problems, but they are not the only ones. Children spend too much time hanging out. The positively example of family, shool, religion have grown weak and ineffective. Young single mothers are unprepared for child rearing… Many boys do not have the example to a strong positive male model.
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Anglų kalba
2009-07-09
Everyone wants to live clean, nice and tidy. We like to look at somewhere and say: “What a niece place! How wonderful! Just like in heaven!”. But what are we doing to make the surrounding like this? To my mind just nothing… On the contrary – we do much more to destroy our environment. Living conditions in the world are getting worse and worse. Exhaust fumes and smoke from factories are polluting the air, trees are cutting down, and streets are full rubbish and grime. Furthermore rivers are being polluted by chemicals from factories too.
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Lithuania festivals
2009-07-09
Ancient Lithuanian celebrations, work customs and ceremonies often corresponded with the most significant days of the year: solstices, equinoxes and others. Many of these traditions dated back to pagan times. Lithuania was an agricultural nation, therefore it is not surprising that farming and husbandry left their mark on calendar celebrations. After Lithuania was converted to Christianity, the church began determining when holidays would occur. However elements of ancient pagan beliefs still existed alongside Christian ones in many holiday rituals.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,7 kB)
Defoe hopes that Moll Flanders will be taken for what he says it is, a true history, despite the fact of its heroine's real name being concealed and the multitude of novels being published at the time. He explains that he has altered Moll Flanders' style to make it more polite and modest, as befitting her supposedly reformed character. Originally its language had been "not fit to be read," as a result of Moll's debauched lifestyle.
Marius is my best friend. He is twenty - five years old and has got short, brown hair, blue eyes and a lovely, warm face.It seems like he and I are always talking or laughing about something. He has a very nice personality and a wonderful sense of humor but he can also get a little depressed from time to time. I can always count on him to be honest and to give me the best advice. We like going to the cinema but sometimes can't agree on which movie to see. Sometimes we just walk around, trying to find a new area of the city to explore.
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Now the computer is very important invention for us. The first electronic computer was invented in 1950. The first computer was very big and not very clever. Now the computer is very small and modern. We can carry modern computer in the little bag. With computer we can do a lot of things, for example: play, write, listen the music, watch TV, read news papers and magazines, paint, count and do other things.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,24 kB)
Crime in Lithuania
2009-07-09
Nowadays crime is very associated with our modern world. Unfortunately, it’s not as safe as we would like to be so we must do everything we can in order to improve our own safety. Crime is a very serious problem in nowadays Lithuania. The criminal situation in my country is much worse than in other western European countries. It’s quite difficult to feel safe late at night or even in the evening in the streets as you can simply be mugged. Much more dangerous can be walking in the streets alone also in the evening, so people are advised to go by cars instead of walking alone and not to have a lot of expensive things such as mobile phones, cameras, watches, huge amounts of cash or other valuable things which might catch the offenders eye.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,05 kB)
London
2009-07-09
The capital of the United Kingdom can be divided into three distinct parts. The main commercial area is around The City, where Roman London was founded and where the medieval township grew up, dominated by the massive fortress of the Tower of London. Further west along the Thames lays Westminster, the centre of government and administration. The West End—running west from Covent Garden to Oxford Street—is the main shopping and entertainment area. Surrounding this core are districts such as Kensington, Chelsea, and Marylebone, that joined London in the 18th century, but retain a separate identity.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (8,57 kB)
Canada and all of the developed countries in the world produce some kind of toxic waste(s). It doesn't matter whether it's a chocolate bar wrapper or a canister of highly radioactive plutonium, they're potentially dangerous to us and/or our natural environment unless properly disposed of. Toxic waste is defined as any waste that is hazardous to human health or to our natural environment. According to the Institute of Chemical Waste Management, about 15% of our garbage is classified as toxic, and only 85% (approximately) of that is disposed of properly. The rest is either illegally dumped or accidentally mixed up with non-toxic garbage.
UFO's
2009-07-09
What exactly is a U.F.O? Where do they come from? What do they want from us? Well, a UFO is an unusual airborne object that cannot be identified, even after an expert examination. 90 Percent of these reports are either Hoaxes, Conventional objects, or some poor person going insane. The other 10 percent is considered UFO enigma. [II] History: The data of the first UFO sighting is not known. Some researchers say that UFO sightings date back to ancient times. There is no evidence for this speculation, so it is just a thought.
Knauf, a family name, and a corporate group of global dimensions. A leading manufacturer of building materials worldwide, including plasterboards, plasters, insulation materials and external renders, with a turnover of Euro 2.5 bn. With over 100 plants in Europe, Asia, USA and South America, it is through technical innovation and high quality standards that Knauf leads the development of markets across the Globe. Committed to the environment, Knauf is active in retaining the natural balance across all our operations.
About Hronas
2009-07-09
JSC "Hronas" was established in 1993. The Company started with importing and installing plastic windows. Early in 1994 the new production equipment >was brought to and window production started in Lithuania. During seven years of strenuous work the Company has gradually introduced one of the most state-of-the-art aluminium, plastic and wooden construction production processes in Europe.
About Forbo
2009-07-09
Forbo is a global company, which employs some 5,800 people worldwide. Forbo has leading market positions with its attractive product portfolio and brand names of global reputation. Forbo strives to expand and further its existing product range and encourage innovation. The Forbo Group attaches great importance to quality assurance, quality enhancement and environmental compatibility.
Modal Verbs
2009-07-09
The great German poet Goethe once said, “He, who knows no foreign language, doesn’t know his own once”. Today English language is the language of the world. English is not only the national or official language of some thirty states that represent different cultures, but it is also the major international language of communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. It is also the major language of diplomacy. No doubt that we must know English very well.
Many historians think that Sir Ernest Shackleton was a hero and a great patriot of Great Britain; others think that Shakleton’s delusions and ambitions to make a fortune or to win fame brought 28 men to the South Pole in 1914; whereas the majority most likely has never heard anything about Shakleton. However, Shakleton and his attempt to cross the South Pole on foot can be rationalized in many ways. Shackleton was a patriot.
London
2009-07-09
London - the grand resonance of its very name suggests history and might. Its opportunities for entertainment by day and night go on and on and on. It's a city that exhilarates and intimidates, stimulates and irritates in equal measure, a grubby Monopoly board studded with stellar sights. It's a cosmopolitan mix of Third and First Worlds, chauffeurs and beggars, the stubbornly traditional and the proudly avant-garde.
Pollution
2009-07-09
I’m going to speak about some kinds of pollution, for example air pollution or acid rain, water pollution. Now different kinds of trees, many of the animals, birds, fish are in serious danger. What should government do to stop the polluting, nowadays? First of all I would like to speak about water pollution There is no ocean or sea which is not used as a dump. Many rivers and lakes are poisoned, too. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them.
About languages
2009-07-09
My native language is Lithuania. So he must know its fourth form I began to learn the English language. From history, grammar, literature spelling. When I was on the the very first days I understood that it is very difficult to learn. English, as it has different pronunciation and spelling. If you want to learn new words, grammar, how to form the sentence. It is necessary to know the history, culture, traditions of the country which language, you study.
About Paroc
2009-07-09
We have almost 50 years' experience of developing, manufacturing and distributing stone wool products for use by the building industry and other industries. We are currently the leading stone wool manufacturer in the Baltic region, with Sweden and Finland as our main markets. Our annual turnover is more than 235 million euro. Paroc has plants in Finland, Sweden, Poland, Lithuania and the United Kingdom, plus sales companies in fourteen European countries. Paroc offices are located in Vanda (head office) and Pargas, Finland, and in Skövde, Sweden. We employ some 1,700 people.
Parquet
2009-07-09
The most common kind found in Europe is the ordinary oak (Quercus robur), and in America - the red oak (Quercus rubra). Ordinary oaks grow naturally in forests of Lithuania, taking 1.8 % of total forest area. The greatest number of oak-woods is located in Middle Lithuania Lowland; their number is slightly lesser in south-eastern part of the country, and even more so - in the south. Oaks reach 30-40 m in height, and 1,5-2 m in diameter. This tree lives for 500-1,000 years, sometimes even for 1,500 years. Oaks are suitable for cutting down at the age of 120-160 years.
Megrame
2009-07-09
UAB Megrame was established on 26 March 1992 and was the first in Lithuania to start the production of plastic windows. The President of the company is Juozas Magelinskas. Megrame has been a member of the Lithuanian Builders' Association since 1996. The company has two subsidiaries, i.e. Vakarų Megrame and Pietų Megrame, and its representatives in twelve cities and towns of Lithuania.
For over 60,000 years men and women have been communicating. Yet we still feel the need, perhaps more than ever, to find ways to improve these skills. According to numerous research studies, for your entire life you have spent about 75 per sent of each day engaged in communication. Therefore, you may be wondering why you need to study communication in the first place.
Declaration of Independence (United States), in United States history, a document proclaiming the independence of the 13 British colonies in America, adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. The declaration recounted the grievances of the...
Analizė civilinių ir baudžiamųjų bausmių Lietuvoje, jų istorija, raida, dabartinės tendencijos, gavome 10. The Aim of project - to analyze tendencies and causes of crime in Lithuania; to investigate the effectiveness of ciminalistics and penal and civil effect measures on criminality in Lithuania. The Main goal: crime, criminal justice activities, penal and civil effect measures for crime control in Lithuania. The Main Tasks of the project - to prepare the concept of the analysis of criminal tendencies and causes and to prepare the proposals for the improvement of the Lithuanian penal policy; to investigate an effective crime control system of rational punishments and civil legal effect measures; to analyze the practice of the application of the criminal code and criminalities in crime investigation in Lithuania and to prepare the concept of crime investigation in Lithuania and, on the basis of this concept, to prepare concrete proposals for the effectuation of crime investigation in the Republic.
Referatas VU. Įvertinimas 10. Labai geras darbas. Language studies traditionally have emphasized verbal and written language, but in the late dozens of years have begun to consider communication that takes place without words. In some types of...
Where was the famous poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe born? Where were German emperors crowned? Why do Frankfurt's traditional apple wine glasses carry such a unique pattern? Which is the tallest skyscraper in Europe? Where does the European Central Bank have its headquarters? Frankfurt's superbly trained and certified tour guides present our wonderful city in a total of 20 languages.
The establishment of the City of Vilnius has a very popular legend. Once upon a time the Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas was hunting in the holy woods of the Valley of Šventaragis. Tired after the successful day hunt the Grand Duke settled for night there. He fell asleep soundly and had a dream. A huge iron wolf was standing on top a hill and the sound of hundreds of other wolves inside it filled all surrounding fields and woods.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,48 kB)
Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. The term is associated with a social consensus (usually expressed through democratic elections) that certain services should be available to all, regardless of income. Even where public services are neither publicly provided nor publicly financed, for social and political reasons they are usually subject to regulation going beyond that applying to most economic sectors.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (8,51 kB)
Some people think of it as a form of justice. Others think of it as a disgrace to humanity. I strongly believe that there should not be a death penalty. The death penalty deters murder and prevents murderers from killing again by putting the fear of death in to would be killers. A person is less likely to do something, if he or she thinks that harm will come to him. Another way the death penalty may help deter murder is the fact that if the killer is death, he or she will not be able to kill again.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (1,98 kB)
Paukščiai
2009-07-09
Moose Class: Mammalia: Mammals Diet: Plants Order: Artiodactyla: Even-toed Ungulates Size: body: 2.5 - 3 m (8 1/4 - 9 3/4 ft), tail: 5 - 7.5 cm (2 - 3 in) Family: Cervidae: Deer Conservation Status: Non-threatened. Scientific Name: Alces alces Habitat: coniferous forest, often near lakes and rivers Range: Northern Europe and Asia: Scandinavia to Siberia; Alaska, Canada, Northern U.S.A.; introduced in New Zealand. The largest of the deer, the moose is identified by its size, its broad, overhanging muzzle and the flap of skin, known as the bell, hanging from its throat.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,01 kB)
While moving heat via machinery to provide air conditioning is a relatively modern invention, the cooling of buildings is not. The ancient Romans were known to circulate aqueduct water through the walls of certain houses to cool them. As this sort of water usage was expensive, generally only the wealthy could afford such a luxury. In 1820, British scientist and inventor Michael Faraday discovered that compressing and liquefying ammonia, a powerful irritant, could chill air when the liquefied ammonia was allowed to evaporate.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,21 kB)
The major basketball team Statyba was established in 1964 in the Soviet Union. That team managed to win Bronze medals in 1979 at the Soviet Union championship. In 1997 it was renamed Lietuvos Rytas Statyba, then just Lietuvos Rytas as the club was bought by major Lithuanian newspaper Lietuvos Rytas. Investitions made the club to be one of two best clubs of Lithuania, the other being BC Žalgiris from second largest city Kaunas.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (3,81 kB)
The official ceremony inaugurating the new Canadian flag was held on Parliament Hill in Ottawa on February 15, 1965, with Governor General Georges Vanier, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, the members of the Cabinet and thousands of Canadians in attendance. The Canadian Red Ensign, bearing the Union Jack and the shield of the royal arms of Canada, was lowered and then, on the stroke of noon, our new maple leaf flag was raised. The crowd sang the national anthem O Canada followed by the royal anthem God Save the Queen.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (3,15 kB)
Lithuania
2009-07-09
Lithuania is a small piece of land at the Baltic Sea in the geographical centre of Europe. On the map of Europe Lithuania can hardly catch your attention, because its area is only 65,000 sq. km. The borders of our country stretch for more than 1800 km. In the North it borders Latvia, in the East and in the South Belorussia, in the South - West Poland and the Kaliningrad Region of the Russian Federation.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (16,48 kB)
Feast of St.John
2009-07-09
From ancient times people marked the time of the return of the sun, the shortest and longest night. In olden times it was called the Feast of the DEWS, [ a.k.a. RASOS ]. When Christianity was established in Lithuania, the name was changed to Feast of St. John, according to agrarian folk calendar, the start of haying. The rituals of the longest day were closely related to agrarian ideas and notions.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (8,08 kB)
Construction
2009-07-09
Steel is the most important materials in construction. Steel construction can be used in multi floor buildings, halls, masts, and towers, and industrial buildings: crane rails, boiler houses, conveyor belt bridges. Steel construction is very flexible and ecological, but all structures must be very safety and be built according to legal construction regulations.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,38 kB)
Children start to go school at age of seven. They can stay at secondary school for 12 years but some of them leave it after tenth form. These pupils usually go to vocational junior colleges where they can get secondary education and profession. But these schools are getting less popular now, because more and more students want to study at the University.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,07 kB)
Delivery of speech
2009-07-09
It is known that public speaking is a transaction between you and your audience. Just as the language you choose for your message should reflect the nature of your audience, so too should your delivery. Specifically, we discuss choosing an appropriate method of delivery, adapting to diverse audiences, and adapting delivery to the speech occasion.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (9,62 kB)
Avril Lavigne
2009-07-09
Rock & roll wild child Avril Lavigne hit big in summer 2002 with her spiky-fun debut song "Complicated," shifting pop music into a different direction. Lavigne, who was 17 at the time, didn't seem concerned with the glamor of the TRL-dominated pop world and such confidence allowed her star power to soar.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,65 kB)
There are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Every season is beautiful in its own way.When spring conies nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The days become longer and the nights become shorter. The ground is covered with emerald-green grass and spring flowers. The air is fresh, the sky is blue and cloudless, and the sun shines brightly. The trees are in full blossom. The nightingale begins to sing its lovely songs, and sweet melodies may be heard from every wood and park.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,55 kB)
Easter
2009-07-09
The word for Easter, has been borrowed from Beylorussian and means "important day." In Lithuania the Easter morning procession was usually conducted around the church. It was very solemn: church flags were held high, girls strewed flowers, the choir and all the people sang, alternating with a brass band, and the church bells pealed loudly. At the conclusion of the liturgy in church, the people hurried home.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,46 kB)
British art
2009-07-09
British art is the art of the island of Great Britain. The term normally includes British artists as well as expatriates settled in Britain. Art of the United Kingdom is relatively detailed, as most styles, tones, and subject matters have been used by British artists. British art in the later Middle Ages was part of the International style and art in that period was not distinctive to much of other northern European art.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,84 kB)
Since the 1980s, there has been a growing body of evidence to suggest that industrialisation is having an effect on the climate of the planet. As concern has grown, a number of international bodies have been set up to research the issue, and more recently a series of treaties have been established to help curb the emission of so-called 'greenhouse gases'. The most important of these was the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (see below for a link to the full text of the agreement) as part of which the European Union, the USA and Japan agreed to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,8 kB)
Present Simple – everyday/year, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, at weekends, on Mondays …Po when, as, while, before, after, as soon as, until, if; taip pat po who, which, that pgr. sakinys būsimasis, o šalutinis būtinai esamasis. Present Continuous (to be talking) – now, at the(this) moment; su įsiterpusiais always, constantly, for ever. Present perfect (to have talked) – just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, ever, never, before. Baigtam veiksmui su today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year, kai jie reiškia nepasibaigųsį laiką. Nepasibaigusiam veiksmui su for ir since.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,32 kB)
Quantifiers - Some rules of thumb on the use of little, a little, few and a few. LITTLE : only used with UNCOUNTABLE nouns, synonym for hardly any, not much e.g. Look at the sky, there is little hope for bright and sunny weather tomorrow. A LITTLE:only used with UNCOUNTABLE nouns, synonym for a small amount, some e.g. Is there ? The weather forecast says there is still a little hope.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,12 kB)
Authors have always been writing about war. Ernest Hemingway, an American writer of the twentieth century, was one of them. That is to say, his novel “For Whom The Bell Tolls” is held by critics nearly the greatest masterpiece on this topic. Its object is the fatal changes in people’s lives during four days of the Spanish Civil War. War is as a circumstance under which the personalities of the characters, i.e.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,81 kB)
The UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has been the official title of the British state ever since 1922. The UK is constitutional monarchy. This means that the official head of state is the monarch, but his or her powers are limited by the constitution. The British constitution is not written in any single document. Only some of these rules are written down in the form of ordinary laws passed by Parliament at various times. Parliament is the supreme law-making body in the country. It consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. British parliamentary system is one of the oldest in the world, it developed slowly during the 13th century after King John's signature of Magna Charta in 1215.
Kalbos ypatybės
2009-07-09
The formal patterns of correct reasoning can all be conveyed through ordinary language, but then so can a lot of other things. In fact, we use language in many different ways, some of which are irrelevant to any attempt to provide reasons for what we believe. It is helpful to identify at least three distinct uses of language: 1. The informative use of language involves an effort to communicate some content. When I tell a child, "The fifth of May is a Mexican holiday," or write to you that "Logic is the study of correct reasoning," or jot a note to myself, "Jennifer—555-3769," I am using language informatively.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (1,64 kB)
Objektyvumas
2009-07-09
Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to journalistic professionalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. In Europe and other places, advocacy journalism is considered as a legitimate sort of professional journalism. The concept of objectivity has always been somewhat ambiguous, and both journalists and the public tend to identify objectivity in its absence. Few journalists would make a claim to total neutrality or impartiality.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (2,08 kB)
Turizmas
2009-07-09
People on our planet can’t live without travel now. Tourism has become a highly developed business. There are express trains, cars and jet-air liners all of that provide you with comfort and security. What choice to make? It’s up to you to decide. There are great varieties of choices available for you. If you travel for pleasure you would like by all means to enjoy picturesque places you are passing through, you would like seeing the places of interest, enjoying to sight seeing of the cities, towns and countries.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (1,63 kB)
Turizmas
2009-07-09
Sometimes, when it comes to the situation that you have a foreign guest, you have nothing else to do as make him interested in Lithuania. I am strongly against speaking about poor economical situation as it is not very interesting, especially for the rich foreigners. The fact is well known that Lithuania is a small piece of land at the Baltic Sea in the geographical center of Europe.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (1,82 kB)
Rokas ir rokenrolas
2009-07-09
Rokas (angl. Rock) – bendras muzikos krypčių, atsiradusių XX a. penkto dešimtmečio gale JAV, pradedant rokenrolu, pavadinimas. Roko kaip muzikos krypties ribos labai plačios, juo nusakomi tokie vienas nuo kito nutolę muzikos stiliai kaip šokių muzika rokenrolas, bliuzas ar sunkiojo metalo muzika (roko ritmo pavyzdys). Kartais rokas lyginamas su pop muzika kaip jos priešingybė, tačiau aiškios skiriamosios ribos tarp jų nėra ir daugybės muzikinių grupių stilius balansuoja tarp šių dviejų krypčių.
Muzika  Referatai   (7,81 kB)
Rokenrolas
2009-07-09
Rokenrolas (angl. rock and roll arba rock 'n' roll) – muzikos kryptis, atsiradusi XX a. šeštajame dešimtmetyje Šiaurės Amerikoje ir greitai išplitusi po visą pasaulį. Rokenrolas apjungia daugybę JAV muzikos stilių: kantri, liaudies muziką, bažnytinę muziką, darbo dainas, taip pat bliuzą ir džiazą. Iki pat 1990 tai greičiausiai buvo populiariausias Vakarų pasaulio muzikos stilius. Iš jo vėliau vystėsi naujos muzikos kryptys, kurių visuma šiuo metu vadinama tiesiog roku.
Muzika  Referatai   (14,5 kB)
Italian Migration
2009-07-09
Italy is a country with a long history of emigration and a very short experience ofimmigration. Mass emigration started with Italian unification: during the period 1861- 1976 over 26 million people emigrated, half of them towards other European countries,the rest towards North and South America.
Geografija  Kursiniai darbai   (4,89 kB)
Egiptas
2009-07-09
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia. Covering an area of about 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,560 square miles), Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Israel and the Gaza Strip to the northeast; on the north and the east are the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, respectively.
Geografija  Namų darbai   (6,98 kB)
The Flowers decorate our daily life. To present or buy the flowers unnecessary needs the cause (for instance when lad than that was guilty against his girl, they present her flowers). But more often flowers are bought on holidays, birth day, weddings and so on. Also flowers are used for gift not only but also embellishment (for instance on wedding to decorate the machine).
Finansai  Analizės   (2,99 kB)
Trumpalaikis turtas
2009-07-09
Gaminat produkciją ir teikiant paslaugas, paprastai naudojama daug įvairaus turto. Tad visas turtas, kurį valdo ir kuriuo disponuoja įmonė skirstomas į ilgalaikį turta ir trumpalaikį. Ilgalaikis turtas – tai turtas, kuris naudojamas įmonės ekonominei naudai gauti ilgiau nei vienerius metus ir kurio įsigijimo vertė ne mažesnė už įmonės nusistatytąją. Trumpalaikis turtas – tai turtas, kurį numatoma sunaudoti ar panaudoti per vienerius metus, arba kurio įsigijimo vertė yra mažesnė už vertę, Vyriausybės nustatyta ilgalaikiam materialiajam turtui (šiuo metu ne daugiau 500 Lt).
Ekonomika  Kursiniai darbai   (16,31 kB)
Baigimasis darbas parašytas 2004 metais Lietuvos žemės ūkio universitete, darbas apgintas 8 balams, darbas geras, darbe atlikta bankų veiklos analizė įmonių kreditavimo srityje.
Ekonomika  Diplominiai darbai   (21,28 kB)
Maskva
2009-07-09
The capital of russia experienced all historic crises and lighted for the new gloss. That giant city looks like as, if it was built withaut a plan. It is like a peculiar improvisation. There surprise as bigger than any where Else streets, hauses and sobors. Still, such giant fulness doesn't drown ancient architektures of monument. Especially pleasant and extraordinary favour of Moscow peaple is meet not only in a busy market by old Arbat, but in a district by new Arbat as well.
Rusų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,45 kB)
Šiame rašto darbe naudojant aprašomąjį bei palyginamąjį metodus bus stengiamasi paaiškinti, kaip feminizmas ir skirtingi jo judėjimai aiškina politiką. Feminizmas iš pradžių gali pasirodyti visai nesusijęs su politika ir valsybės valdžia. Tačiau feministų judėjimai labai daug pasiekė veikdami būtent dalyvaujant politikoje ir per įvairias institucines organizacijas. Rašydama šį rašto darbą rėmiausi knygomis, kuriose yra susietos tiek feminizmo pagrindinės idėjos, tiek jų santykis su politika bei jos teorija.
Politologija  Referatai   (10,26 kB)
Nutrients
2009-07-09
Darbas anglų kalba apie anglevandenius, vitaminus, riebalus. What you eat has a life long effect on your health and well-being. To look and feel your best, you have to eat adequate amounts of the proper foods. Many teenagers don't always choose the food that is best for them. They may not want to eat what the rest of the family is eating or they may eat poorly at school. The food at the school cafeteria is required by law in the United States to meet certain nutritional standards, but you may not be eating their food. There are six types of nutrients: protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Pramonė  Referatai   (5,85 kB)
Maisto saugos vadybos sistemos projektas. Anglų kalba. Projektas buvo pristatytas Kopenhagos universitete, Danijoje. Darbas buvo yvertintas labai gerai. Vertas dėmesio studijuojantiems maisto pramonę.
Pramonė  Referatai   (14,77 kB)
Introduce myself
2009-07-09
First of all I would like to introduce myself. I am Andrius Narbutas student A. I am studying in the fourth A class of gymnasium. It means that this year I am the school-leaver. Talking about my personal characteristics I would like to say that I am frank, obstinate, persistent, good-tempered and sometimes moody. In my opinion it is very important to mention that I am studying English for nine years and now you have a chance to grade my English knowledge.
Rašinys "Kas geriau, žiūrėti filmus namuose ar kine", mano anglų kalbos mokytojos buvo įvertintas palankiai.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (0,99 kB)
Namų darbas iš knygos "Upstream intermediate", gavau 10 (labai turtingas žodynas ir puikios konstrukcijos). The aim of this article is to resolve a question of improving our college’s snack bar, which will be changed to a modern self-service cafeteria. I have some ideas that might be useful. When we talk of cafeteria we firstly think of the food, which will be included on the menu.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,17 kB)
Anglų kalbos temos
2009-07-09
Personal identification I’m Darius. I was born in 1978 on the 21th of February in Kaunas. I don’t remember anything about the weather that day, but I know that it was about 2:30 p.m. I was the first child in the family. Our family is not very big, I have a brother. When I was a child I can't say, that I was a good boy. My parents always want me to be a good man, and now I'm very thankful for that.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (15,57 kB)
Įvairių dalykų pliusai ir minusai, gali praversti rašiniams, kalbėjimo įskaitai. Access a lot of information, do some jobs very quickly, communicate very quickly, word processors make it easier to write letters and reports, and to do work for school, make learning more exciting, large amount of information can be stored.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,31 kB)
We love nature so much as it gives us that change we need: cold winter gives way to charming spring that turns to generous summer and romantic autumn. I like spring. After winter with its nasty drizzle, melting snow, dark gloomy sky spring comes. It gets warmer and warmer every day.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,47 kB)
Complain letter
2009-07-09
Dėstytoja įvertino puikiai. Your adress... Dear, Sir/Madam, My family and I have returned from a two-week holiday at the Paradise hotel in Spain and I wish to complain about the bad accomodation, Briefly, my complaint is as follows: The tiles in the bathroom were cracked, and some were coming off from the wall; the shower did not work at all, the general standart of cleanliness and decoration was very poor.
Motivation letter
2009-07-09
Application letter for a job. Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing this letter to apply for the position of student assistant that I saw advertised on your website. I am interested in working in the teachers' resource library, or in the accommodation department.
Littering
2009-07-09
Anglų tema apie šiukšlinimo įtaką mūsų aplinkai. In today‘s fast moving world, one of the biggest problem is littering. Our environment is more and more polluting with litters and, to my mind, we should do something to solve this problem and save our planet from trashes.
Computers
2009-07-09
Channels of communication What are ‘telecommunications’? This term refers to the transmission of information over long distances using the telephone system, radio, TV satellite or computer links. Examples are two people speaking on the phone, a sales department sending a fax to a client or someone reading the teletext pages on TV But in the modern world, telecommunications mainly means transferring information from one PC to another via modem and phone lines (or fibre-optic cables).
Christmas
2009-07-09
Almost everyone in Lithuania has a Christmas tree in their home which is decorated with electric lights and ornaments purchased in the store. There are some people who still follow the old traditions and use hand crafted ornaments to decorate the tree. It is done especially if the family has little children who like to make ornaments from paper or something else in order to put them on the branches of the tree.
Sportas
2009-07-09
While sport has value in everyone's life, it is even more important in the life of a person with a disability. This is because of the rehabilitative influence sport can have not only on the physical body but also on rehabilitating people with a disability into society.
Shrove Tuesday is a merry carnival. It is celebrated on Tuesday, the eve of Ash Wednesday, to mark the winter’s end.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,19 kB)
Olympic Games
2009-07-09
The Olympic Games is the world’s number one sports event. For athletes they mean a chance to win gold and glory. For all people they are a symbol of peace, hope, friendly cooperation between nations, fairness, high moral and physical standards. The Olympic Games have a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olympia.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,18 kB)
South bank centre
2009-07-09
Už šį darbą gavau dešimt. Southbank Centre is a complex of artistic venues located in London, UK, on the South Bank of the River Thames between County Hall and Waterloo Bridge. It comprises three main buildings; the Royal Festival Hall, the Queen Elizabeth Hall and The Hayward art gallery, and is Europe’s largest centre for the arts.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,5 kB)
Nuclear energy
2009-07-09
The relative costs of generating electricity from coal, gas and nuclear plants vary considerably depending on location. Coal is, and will probably remain, economically attractive in countries such as China, the USA and Australia with abundant and accessible domestic coal resources as long as carbon emissions are cost-free.
Jane Eyre
2009-07-09
In this work there will be analyzed Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre. The book, acritique of social Victorian assumptions about gender and social class, became one of the most succeccful novels of its era, both critically and commercially. The structure of this work is as follows: - The period of Realism (it’s reflection in Jane Eyre) - Autobiography of Charlotte Bronte.
Application letter,order, complain letter, cv -exaples.
Pagrindinės anglų kalbos gramatikos taisyklės. Present Simple laikas vartojamas reikšti įprastam,pasikartojančiam arba nuolant vykstančiam veiksmui dabartyje ,bet nebūtinai vykstančiam kalbos momentu. Teigiamajame sakinyje veiksmažodis vartojamas pirmąja forma(bendratis be dalelytės to), tik vienaskaitos trečias asmuo(he,she,it) turi galūnę es. Klausiamieji ir neigiamieji sakiniai sudaromi su pagalbiniu veiksmažodžiu do, o trečias asmuo su did. Pats veiksmažodis nesikeičia.
The city of London
2009-07-09
The City of London is a small area in Greater London. The modern conurbation of London developed from the City of London and the nearby City of Westminster, which was the centre of the royal government. The City of London is now London's main financial district.
Family Relationship
2009-07-09
Psichologinė analizė apie santykius šeimoje. Families shape the quality of our lives. Emotional links among family members stretch across households and decades, influencing our outlooks on life, motivations, and strategies for achievement, and styles for coping with adversity. Family relations are the earliest and most enduring social relationships.
James Joyce (1882-1941), Irish novelist, noted for his experimental use of language in such works as “Ulysses“ (1922) and “Finneganns Wake“ (1939). Joyce's technical innovations in the art of the novel include an extensive use of interior monologue; he used a complex network of symbolic parallels drawn from the mythology, history, and literature, and created a unique language of invented words, puns, and allusions.
I would like to start my individual project with describing of Vilnius Castle Complex. I have been living not far away and can wonder time, when I see it. How beautiful and interesting it is! The Vilnius Castle Complex is a group of defensive, cultural and religious buildings on the left bank of the Neris River, near the inflow the Vilnia River, in Vilnius.
Tourism impacts
2009-07-09
Anglų kursinis. Įvertintas 8, nes trūko vienos dalies, o šiaip gan neblogas. For a tourism-based economy to sustain itself in local communities, the residents must be willing partners in the process. Their attitudes toward tourism and perceptions of its impact on community life must be continually assessed.
Kursinis darbas buvo įvertintas 9 balais. Pristatytas Klaipėdos verslo kolegijoje. "Bakery" means a business producing, preparing, storing, or displaying bakery products intended for sale for human consumption. Several objective and subjective methods are being used for controlling quality of bakery products such as loaf volume, crust color, grain and texture of crumb in case of bread, and spread, raise, crispness etc, in case of biscuits and cookies.
Hotels provide the vast majority of the accommodation for those traveling on business, atending conferences and exibitions or perticipating in incentives trips. In the UK hotels and guset hauses between them account for two – thirds of all business tourism accomodation. Only universities ( mainly for conferences ) and friends and family provide any other significant forms of accommodation.
Europien Union
2009-07-09
What is the Europien Union ? The European Union (EU) is not a federation like the United States. Nor is it simply an organisation for co-operation between governments, like the United Nations. It is, in fact, unique. The countries that make up the EU (its ‘member states’) remain independent sovereign nations but they pool their sovereignty in order to gain a strength and world influence none of them could have on their own. Pooling sovereignty means, in practice, that the member states delegate some of their decision-making powers to shared institutions they have created, so that decisions on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at European level.
Įvertinimas 8,pristatytas kolegijoje, legalios verslo formos ir valdymo struktūra. New business planners do some serious thinking about what legal form to choose for their new endeavour. This means determining what status the business will be in the eyes of the law. The choice has very important consequences.
Adobe read
2009-07-09
Adobe and its suppliers own all intellectual property in the Software. Adobe permits you to Use the Software only in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. Use of some third party materials included in the Software may be subject to other terms and conditions typically found in a separate license agreement, a “Read Me” file located near such materials or in the “Third Party Software Notices and/or Additional Terms and Conditions” found at http://www.adobe.com/go/thirdparty .
Anglų kalba  Kursiniai darbai   (10,68 kB)
Lithuania
2009-07-09
Už sį darba gavau 10 . Stengtasi ir ilgai ieškota informacijos...
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,69 kB)
Kings Canyon is situated within the Watarrka National Park, and is a huge canyon 270m high. The walk around the rim of the canyon is definitely worth it as the views are spectacular, although it can take 3-4 hours and should only be attempted early in the morning during the summer months.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,95 kB)
Gavau 9. ranslation is an action of interpretation of the text that gives the same massage in other language. Translation is basically a change of form. When we speak of the form of the language, we use words, sentences, paragraphs, etc., which are written or spoken.
Šis darbas buvo pristatytas Portugalijoje, Bragancos IPB institute, 2008m. Darbas buvo įvertintas 8 - iems, reikia dar gilesnių idėjų, ir pasinaudoti didesne literatūra, kadangi tai buvo mūsų visiškai sugalvotos naujos idejos, literatūra naudojomės...
Internet
2009-07-09
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW).
Anglų kalba  Kursiniai darbai   (15,94 kB)
Drug
2009-07-09
Drug, substance that affects the function of living cells, used in medicine to diagnose, cure, prevent the occurrence of diseases and disorders, and prolong the life of patients with incurable conditions. Since 1900 the availability of new and more effective drugs such as antibiotics, which fight bacterial infections, and vaccines, which prevent diseases caused by bacteria and viruses, has increased the average American’s life span from about 60 years to about 75 years. Drugs have vastly improved the quality of life.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (11,98 kB)
Hawaii
2009-07-09
Hawaii is a group of islands located in the centre of the Pacific Ocean that became the 50th state of the United States of America in 1959. The 130 islands are of volcanic origin. Only seven of the eight major islands are inhibated :Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Hawaii's Big Island… GEOGRAPHY Hawaii is the most remote island chain in the world, over 2,000 miles from the nearest landfall. Distance makes for splendid isolation - these Polynesian islands are removed from all else but one another.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (7,33 kB)
Danger of terrorism
2009-07-09
This topic concerns wide aspect of crimes, because definition of terrorism isn’t unanimous concept.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (8 kB)
Sony company
2009-07-09
Darbas įvertintas 10. Panaudoti paveiklėliai. Fotografijos istorija (tik pagrindiniai dalykai plačiau), kameros panaudojimas, elementai pagrindiniai.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,02 kB)
Photograhy
2009-07-09
Photography is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose a sensitive silver halide based chemical or electronic medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (12,46 kB)
Lithuania politic
2009-07-09
Biografinė knyga. išrinkti 100 žodžių su vertimais (skliausteliuose parašytas puslapis kur tas žodis randasi). Ir trumpas pasakojimas apie perskaitytą knygą.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (1,15 kB)
Gavau 10. Diana Spencer nickname Lady Di born: July 1st, 1961 birthplace of: Sandringham (Norfolk - England) parents: John Edward Spencer (1924-1992) Lady Frances Spencer (1936) divorced since 1969 sisters and brothers: Sarah, Jane, Charles length: 1.77 m weight: unknown colour of eyes: blue colour of hair: blond residence: Kensington Palace in London marriage: On July 29th Lady Diana married Prince Charles.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (24,52 kB)
Žmogus + kompiuteris... Prezentacija. Man-Computer relationship [presentation]: Will computers be able to make decisions for us? Maybe my presentation will help with the answer. 1: Man-computer relationship is a fast-growing field that draws upon several branches of social and information science, as well as medicine, computer science, and electrical engineering.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,73 kB)
Dialogai
2009-07-09
Dialogai, kuriuos tenka kalbėti įskaitos metu, temos iš egzaminų programos.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (3,48 kB)
The rich should share all their wealth with the poor. Today’s world is not very easy. Many people are living poorly these days, some of them are even starving. Those people, who couldn’t have got the background because of particular reasons, now are saying, how they are unlucky and miserable persons. And those who earn a lot, who are reveling in their life and don’t count the money, don’t ever think how they could be generous by helping the poor’s.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,15 kB)
Eiffel Tower
2009-07-09
Gavau 10. Tai rašinys apie Eifelio bokštą. Eiffel Tower was built in the 1889, especially for a world mark. The mark was held in Paris. Three hundred workers joined together. Architects decided to build 300metres metallic Tower.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (0,86 kB)
The media shows us millions pictures of "beautiful" people and gives us a lot of “lessons” on how to make ourselves more attractive: how to have better hair, better teeth, better makeup or a better body. Take any fashion magazine and you will see that almost every fashion advertisement company there uses a thin model who looks happy because she has bright skin, new lipstick, beautiful clothes or because she lost her weight because of some new magic pills. Have you seen an overweight male or female appear in the advertisement?
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,18 kB)
Williams syndrome
2009-07-09
The most important treasure for peoples is health. Every body knows that, every body repeats it thousands of times. For parents sometimes the most important are them own child. They could do anything for them. But sometimes it is not enough to want or to do, because diseases do not ask or you could do for your child everything, it just appears and you need to fight with them. How much cost child’s health?
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,24 kB)
Charlie Chaplin, who brought laughter to millions worldwide as the silent "Little Tramp" clown, had the type of poor childhood that one would expect to find in a Dickens novel. Born in East Street, Walworth, London on 16 April, 1889, Charles Spencer Chaplin was the son of a music hall singer and his wife.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (7 kB)
Konspekte nagrinėjama: 7 turizmo komponentai, apgyvendinimo rūšys, maisto pateikimo rūšys, viešbučio kambarių rūšys, viešbučio administravimo sistema. Viskas anglų kalba.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (0,86 kB)
An industry is a group of businesses or corporations that produce a product or service for the profit. Because of the billions of dollars it generates, travel can certainly be categorized as an industry.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (7,78 kB)
In the year 1944, Captain Norval Marley married a young Jamaican girl named Cedalla Booker. On February 6, 1945 at two thirty in the morning their son, Robert Nesta Marley was born in his grandfather's house. Soon after Bob was born his father left his mother.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (5,64 kB)
Namų darbas, apie šių laikų technologijas ir taip visur paplitusį internetą. We live in the age of information. The latest technologies develop every day and even every minute. Now we can find a needed person in a very short time using e-mail, mobile technologies, paging system and others. There are no inaccessible places in the world, so the distances now seem not so big as it looked hundred years ago.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,74 kB)
My dream house
2009-07-09
The topic of my talk is my dream house. As an introduction to my talk I want to say that I feel fine in our house, but everyone wants to live better, I think. Firstly, I’d like to tell you about lifestyle of living in a city and living in a country. The townies are more private people than the villager. Often the peoples, who live in the city, know their neighbours just by sight.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,61 kB)
Charles Dickens
2009-07-09
Įvertintas 9. he Greatest of Victorian writers English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens's works are characterized by attacks on social evils, injustice, and hypocrisy. He had also experienced in his youth oppression, when he was forced to end school in early teens and work in a factory.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (6,77 kB)
Emotions
2009-07-09
Perhaps all of us have experienced both positive and negative feelings. We all have felt joy, sorrow or fear. All these feelings represent emotions – feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior. So when we experience a feeling it is likely that there are changes, for example, in our heart rate.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (4,12 kB)
Ar kompiuteris reikalingas klasėse...Čia tinka anglų kalbos pokalbiui. 50 years ago people didn't even heard of computers, and today we cannot imagine life without them. Computer technology is the fastest-growing industry in the world. The first computer was the size of a minibus and weighed a ton. Today, its job can be done by a chip the size of a pin head. And the revolution is still going on. Very soon we'll have computers that we'll wear on our wrists or even in our glasses and earrings.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (0,97 kB)
Style in letter
2009-07-09
Tai vienuolika skirtingomis temomis parašytų rašinėlių, kurie pravers besiruošiant anglų kalbos egzaminams ar kalbėjimo įskaitoms.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (10,77 kB)
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, is about a young boy, Huck, in search of freedom and adventure.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (11,73 kB)
Anglų kalbos temos
2009-07-09
Some people think that school years are the happiest days in people’s lives. Can you say that you have been happy at school? Why? School is the traditional place for acculturating children into our national life. In the modern age, the role assigned to our schools is to prepare children for the literate public culture.
Transport
2009-07-09
Express your opinion on having a car. Is it a dream or a reality? What is the advantages and disadvantages (including environment) of having a car? gali prireikti ruosiantis valstybiniam anglu kalbos egzaminui. Įvertintas 10.
The Advantages of Lithuania’s Integration into the European UnionThe integration into the European Union is one of the most crucial objectives of the Lithuania’s foreign policy. Beginning with 1989-1990, when the decision of the Baltic States to restore independence manifested itself, the largest Western states became interested in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
War and peace
2009-07-09
The twentieth century has marked a clear watershed not only in mankind's social history but in its very destiny. The outgoing century is different from those that preceded it in that, for the first time ever, mankind cannot regard itself as immortal, for it has become aware that its dominion over nature has limits and may even threaten its own survival. Even if nuclear war can be avoided, the threat to mankind will remain, for the Earth may one day no longer have the capacity to bear the burden of human activity.
Chinese Art
2009-07-09
China has the world's oldest living civilization. It's written history goes back almost 3,500 years, and the history told by it's artifacts and artwork goes back much farther. The oldest known works of Chinese art include pottery and jade carvings from the time of 5000 BC.
Childhood should be a happy time spent playing with friends, enjoying a favorite toy — even planning for the first day of school. But children in the developing world spend most of their childhood struggling to survive, without much hope for a secure, productive life.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,05 kB)
"Midi" World
2009-07-09
Trumpai apie MIDI... My presentation can be useful for those who study music technologies, but the others may also find out something new and interesting. I am here to enlighten you about MIDI, in fact – a short history of it. MIDI is a standart for connecting digital electronic musical instruments. But before MIDI there were synthesizers...
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (1,36 kB)
Literature genres
2009-07-09
Literatūros žanrai. Haiku is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku. The traditional haiku consisted of a pattern of 5, 7, 5 on. The Japanese word on, meaning "sound". Haiku usually combine three different lines, with a distinct grammatical break, called kireji, usually placed at the end of either the first five or second seven morae.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (6,38 kB)
How telephone works
2009-07-09
Trumpai ir aiškiai anglų kalba apie telefono aparato veikimo principą. The telephone operates on simple principles. A telephone mouthpiece contains a thin metallic coating separated from an electrode by a thin barrier (today we use plastic) which connects to a wire carrying an electric current. When a person speaks into the mouthpiece, the acoustic vibrations from her speech push the metallic coating slightly closer to the electrode, resulting in variations in voltage and therefore a speedy conversion from acoustic to electric energy.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (0,82 kB)
Tema apie Londoną
2009-07-09
10 klasės tema apie Londoną. London is the capital of the United Kingdom. It is one if the largest cities in the world. The city extends an area over of 1500 square kilometers and has a population of over 7mln. Despite its turbulent development, London has retained its charm and unique character.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (1,38 kB)
Enviroment
2009-07-09
Neblogai įvertinas tekstas. The main topic of my individual talk will be about living surroundings. In addition, I will give some pieces of advice how to live in a clean and healthy enviroment. First, I would like to say that no human could stand being apart from enviroment becouse each of us is a part of the natural world. As you know, we are dependable from enviroment.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (1,83 kB)
PI vartojamas su laiko aplinkybemis always, often, usually, regulary, daily, etc. Pvz. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends.• Neigiamoji forma vartojama su prieveiksmiais never, seldom, rarely, sometimes.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,38 kB)
Foregn languages
2009-07-09
According to the statistics, there are about 6-7 thousand languages. Six hundred languages are registered in the world atlas and three hundred of them are under the threat of extinction. English is one of the major language in the world, and...
31-na anglų tema
2009-07-09
The United States of America. Australia. Great Britan. Russia. Sports in Great Britan. Education. The educational system of Great Britain. British education. Education in Russia. My favorite painter. My future profession. Mass media. Leasure time. The...
Kauno Saulės gimnazija, gauta iš kalbėjimo 10. I am from Kaunas, my address is Baltijos seventy-nine, flat nine, I was born on the ……………th of ………….. in Kaunas, thus I am nineteen now. I am male, and still single as I think I am not mature enough to marry. Thus, I have no children.
Atsakymas į egzamino klausimą. Įvertintas puikiai. Anglų kalba. 5 lapai 12 šriftu. Innovation can be usefully characterized as a learning process. Learning is intrinsically cumulative: firms, regions and countries usually innovate along specific and quite rigid trajectories. Technological progress and innovation usually involve a variety of learning processes which may be obtained either from internal or external sources.
Moscow the capital of Russia is one of the world’s great cities. Its name was first mentioned in chronicles in 1147. Since that time M. has played an important role in R-an history. Today M. isn’t only the political center of R. but also the contry’s leading city in population, industry & in cultural importrance. M. stands on the M.R. in the center of the vast plain of E.R. The climate of M. is continental.
After having read “The Moon And Sixpense” by W.S. Maugham personally I feel really impressed and I still cannot recover from it. It amazed me much by its mystery and strangeness. The main character Charles Strickland is one of the most fascinating characters I have ever read about. His whole life story can be divided to two basic parts.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,24 kB)
Šis kalbėjimas buvo pristatytas Atžalyno vidurinėje mokykloje. Gavau 10, tiesa, intonacija ir tarimas nuo jūsų pačių priklauso. Sėkmės. Easter, the Sunday of the Resurrection is the most important religious feast, observed at some point between late March and late April each year, following the cycle of the moon.
Pagrindiniai anglų kalbos laikai santraukoje.
“Dynamite in Europe” is a documentary book. It contains fragments from the life of evangelist James Stewart who lived in the middle of XX century. We can divide the book into two parts: the first tell us about James’ difficult childhood and adoles-cence, the second – about his life, as devoted servant of God.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,81 kB)
The book is amazing true-life story of Henri Charriere, called "Papillon" because of the butterfly tattooed on his chest, exiled to Devils Island for a murder he did not commit. He is determined to escape, and the book takes us through many attempts until at last he attains his freedom and begins a new life in Venezuela. The power of the book lies in the humanity, honesty and sheer spirit of Charriere.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,09 kB)
I have read the first part of the book “Well done, Secret Seven”. It was written by Enid Blyton. I don’t know why, but this book admired me for the first look. This book tells an adventure story about Secret Society, where seven young children are involved.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (0,97 kB)
Renaissance period described as the revival of the classical forms originally developed by the ancient Greeks and Romans. Renaissance artists created works of such authority that generation of later artists relied on these artworks for instruction. Renaissance art reduces the parts of a total form to a sequence of planes and the baroque art emphasizes the depth.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (1,11 kB)
Italy
2009-07-09
Italy (in Italian, Italia), republic in southern Europe, bordered on the north by Switzerland and Austria; on the east by Slovenia and the Adriatic Sea; on the south by the Ionian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea; on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Ligurian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea; and on the north-west by France.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,69 kB)
The environmental damage is probably the most significant of nowadays problems. This is the result of ourselves behavior with environment. In addition, the Industrial Revolution had huge effects to environmental damage. In my opinion, there are several solutions to this problem.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (0,86 kB)
Opinion Letter: Child Labor According to the International Labor Organization there are approximately 250 million working children between the ages of 5 and 14. Somewhat around 120 million of them are performing in their jobs on a full time basis. Another half combines with school and other non-economic activities. Impressive numbers, aren’t they?
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,81 kB)
Private schooling
2009-07-09
Private Schooling Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that private schools offer a better education to children and better prepare them for college. Thesis Statement: Private school children are more involved in community service, are generally provided with a better education, and are more likely to apply and succeed in college.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,38 kB)
Fight Club
2009-07-09
Filmo "Fight Club" analizė.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (6 kB)
Ką reiškia būti mokytoju (anglų k. metodikai). The advantages and disadvantages of being a teacher. School takes up a very important part in students’ life. There they spend twelve years of them life. The school becomes like a second home to them. There they grow up, learn to love, to forgive and to be friend. The school is the first step to the greet life. The most important person in school is the teacher.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,25 kB)
Kinds Of Democracy
2009-07-09
Šiame darbe yra aprašomos demokratijos rūšys, demokratijos sąvoka ir panašiai. Darbas gali būti panaudotas anglų kalbos projektui apie demokratiją.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,03 kB)
Unemployment really is one of the economic and social problems. However, stressing of this problem usually leaves people with an impression that it is the most urgent in Lithuania. One could read in an article in one newspaper that this problem is not that urgent as our politicians present it.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (3,35 kB)
Neblogas tyrimas (research) apie kūno kultūros svarbą. Geras "main body", yra ir anketos pavyzdys. Tik grafikai išgalvoti, nes tikra apklausa nebuvo atlikta :)
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,53 kB)
Trumpas knygos aprašymas, į kurį įeina įžanga, pagrindinės problemos, kodėl verta perskaityti ir išvados. The book “Troubled heritage” is a fascinating, thrilling romance, written by the talented author Jeanne Wilson. The book tells the story of love, adventure, and wild passions amongst the members of three Jamaican families. The plot of “Troubled heritage” focuses on the social problems, such as caste, privileges for white- and dark-skinned people, decisions on lightening the colour by marriages to white girls, and the question: can the two- or three- quarters legitimate heirs inherit devise?
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (0,81 kB)
Today education has become a token of an advanced, healthy and competent society. In fact, modern education more than ever before is aiming to provide experiences that will be useful in life (Smith 153). In the process of deciding which activities are effective and should be included in the high school curriculum, a clash between opinions often arises.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (5,45 kB)
Market segmentation
2009-07-09
In segmenting a market, marketers look for broad classes of buyers who differ in their needs. There is no one right way of segmenting markets. A marketer has several bases available to him/her for the segmentation of markets.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,6 kB)
In this tutorial I take you step-by-step through the process of creating this Flash MX movie. You will learn how to create graphics, work with layers, and add motion, sound, and text to your movie.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (3,34 kB)
Knygos "Karaoke akpitalizmas" analizė. Darbas anglų kalba, buvo įvertintas puikiai. Pristatytas KTU. 10 lapų.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (6,65 kB)
Samuel M. Thompson „The Nature of Philosophy“. The book was published in January, 1961 Monmouth, Illinois. Samuel M. Thompson- a member of Monmouth College. In Monmouth Colleg‘s faculty he became chairman of the Philosophy Department. His first book, A Modern Philosophy of Religion, as well as his second book, The Nature of Philosophy, became widely used in many colleges and universities.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,4 kB)
Apie turizmo agentūras. The year 2003 was successful for Lithuanian travel agencies. Most of them have increased their sales and the number of tourists. There is a tendency of amalgamation and strengthening of the largest agencies. Travel agencies “Novaturas” and “Omnituras” would be the best examples of this successful cooperation.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,96 kB)
Advertising
2009-07-09
By mean of the elections people express their opionion how the country should be governed and who in their opinion would do it the best. In this essay I will try to compare how the main bodies of the Government are elected in all three countries – the...
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,1 kB)
Comparison essay on tax systems in Great Britain, The United States of America and Lithuania.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (5,76 kB)
“Agnes Grey” by Anne Bronte is a strongly autobiographical novel portraying the world of a governess in the mid-nineteen century and examining social manners and the lack of moral perceptions. Drawing on her own experience the author of this book...
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,28 kB)
KTU socialinių mokslų fakulteto 1 kurso anglų kalbos tiriamasis darbas (gavau 10). "Government does not tax to get the money it needs; government always finds a need for the money it gets." That’s what once said Ronald Reagan about taxes and what it is collected for. Of course, it was a joke, but I may bet there are lots of people, who would agree with that thought. Sometimes they even feel that they are caught in the behemothian jaws of government.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,09 kB)
Agnes grey
2009-07-09
“Agnes Grey” by Anne Bronte is a strongly autobiographical novel portraying the world of a governess in the mid-nineteen century and examining social manners and the lack of moral perceptions. Drawing on her own experience the author of this book tries to reveal the position of a young, educated girl who sets out into the world to take up the only respectable career open to her – that of governess.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (3,66 kB)
Media have a tremendous influence on family life. Consider that 99 percent of U.S. homes have a television. Ninety-eight percent have radios, and 69 percent have computers. Just sixty years ago the invention of the television was viewed as a technological curiosity with small black and white ghost-like figures on a screen so hardly anyone could see them. Today that curiosity has become a constant companion to many, mainly – children.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (6,03 kB)
Many people believe that religion occurs only in the church, temple, or other spiritual places of gathering. They see religion and society as complete, separate entities. While this view may appear correct on the surface, a closer look at religion and society reveals that the two are not separate at all, but intricately interconnected and codependent.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (6,54 kB)
In ancient times, commercial and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii. Egyptians used papyrus to create sales messages and wall posters.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (20,72 kB)
Palyginimas darželių, mokyklų ir rebilitacijos klinikos Norvegijoje ir Lietuvoje. Darbas pristatytas Agderio universitete Norvegijoje.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (8,8 kB)
Pollution problems
2009-07-09
Kalba apie gamtos problemas. Gavau 9. Klaidų daug, bet mokytoja sakė, kad turinys geras.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (1,67 kB)
Erly Life of Columbus. A Western Route to Asia. The Expedition. People all over the world, if they were asked who first found America could answer, “Christopher Columbus” and give the date of the great event: October 12, 1492. Columbus reached one of the Bahama islands, east of America, with his three small ships on that day, after sailing for two months across seas which were mostly unknown.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (4 psl., 7,74 kB)
Education on the whole. Education fees in schools and Universities. Famous high schools of Lithuania. Famous foreign high schools. Education obtainable in Vilnius University. Types of high education. Education and studies in Communication Departament. Education is compulsory in Lithuania. Children start school at age of seven. They can stay at secondary school for 12 years but some of them leave it after tenth form. These pupils usually go to vocational junior colleges (proftechos) and trade schools where they can get both secondary education and qualification.And also they leard a trade.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3 psl., 5,42 kB)
Technology progress
2009-06-16
Just like how discovery of steam engine caused revolution in the world of technics, computers caused information revolution today. We can now say that the biggest technology progress is in the last 50 years. Because 50 years ago ENIAC – the first analitical machine was discovered. In the 70s we already had the first generation of computers. They of course were very big and expensive and they couldn’t work long. Ant that was the reason why they were used only in big and rich countries by governmental institutions and scientists. And only in the first part of 90s computers became popular all over the world.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 3,61 kB)
Centralized world
2009-06-16
Now we live in the age of information. Latest technologies develop every day and even every minute. It is very important for us. Now we can find the needed person in a very short time using e-mail, mobile technologies, paging system and others. Maybe the most important of them is Internet. It started in 1960 when some governmental organizations in US wanted to connect their systems in a very reliable net, that couldn’t be affected by war. Later it developed and now we have a big computer network all over the world.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 3,97 kB)
Mass media
2009-06-16
Means of communication are such as print, radio, TV. The mass media are defined as large-scale organizations which use one or more of these technologies to communicate with large numbers of people (‘mass communications’). The mass media has two important sociological characteristics: first, very few people can communicate to a great number; and, second, the audience has no effective way of answering back. Mass communication is by definition a one-way process. Media organizations are bureaucratic and corporate in nature.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,02 kB)
Autumn
2009-06-12
Autumn is the most melancholy season of the year. When we see the nature languish before the long cold period of winter we somehow feel the same and our mood takes a turn for the worse. Actually I don’t think that the autumn is disliked for that, I think the main reason is that the biggest part of this season people will have to stay at home, because of the bad weather.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 2,56 kB)
My summer
2009-06-11
I like summer as a season, but I hate it as a period of time. I get up and hear the birds singing reminding me to mow the lawn. I get down the stairs and see green vegetables reminding me to mow the lawn and then I go out and see nine ares of grass that must be mowed. And the whole story continues every week for the whole summer.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 2,64 kB)
Pamela Anderson
2009-06-11
Pamela Denise Anderson was born in 1967 in Ladysmith, British Columbia, Canada, in the anniversary of Canada. She was the first baby born this day in Canada earning her the title "The Centennial Baby". The Andersons received cash prizes and awards for having the first baby born in Canada on this day, Canada's 100th Birthday. Shortly after that, her family moved to British Columbia. While Pamela was sitting in a library listening to a story with about one hundred other children when a photographer took a picture of her, which was quickly placed, in all the libraries in British Columbia.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,43 kB)
Sunset
2009-06-11
A day ends with a sunset. In the ancient times people used to believe that when the sun goes down the demons and the monsters take control of the earth. It was said that when the sun is down no one should leave his or her homes. But the time went by and people noticed that there is no danger to walk out after or during the sunset. It became a strange phenomenon and later a symbol of the end of the day.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 2,91 kB)
Northern Ireland
2009-06-11
The troubles. Reformation and Plantation. Famine. The province of Northern Ireland (sometimes called ‘Ulster’) consists of six counties: Antrim, Down, Armagh, Tyrone, Fermanagh and Londonderry. Belfast is the capital city. The province is surrounded by sea to the north and east, by the Republican counties of Donegal to the west and Canavan and Monaghan to the south.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4 psl., 5,59 kB)
Great Britain
2009-06-10
London. Wales. Windsor castle. London was not built as a city in the same way as Paris or New York. It began life as a Roman fortification at a place where it was possible to cross the River Thames. A wall was built around the town for defence, but during the long period of peace which followed the Norman Conquest, people built outside the walls. This building continued over the years, especially to the west of the city. In 1665 there was a terrible plague in London, so many people left the city and escaped to the villages in the surrounding countryside. In 1666 the Great Fire of London ended the plague, but it also destroyed much of the city.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (8 psl., 18,63 kB)
Technology progress
2009-06-07
Just like how discovery of steam engine caused revolution in the world of technics, computers caused information revolution today. We can now say that the biggest technology progress is in the last 50 years. Because 50 years ago ENIAC – the first analitical machine was discovered. In the 70s we already had the first generation of computers. They of course were very big and expensive and they couldn’t work long. Ant that was the reason why they were used only in big and rich countries by governmental institutions and scientists. And only in the first part of 90s computers became popular all over the world.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 3,57 kB)
Wales
2009-06-06
Wales is approximately 150miles (242 km.) from north to south. About two - thirds of the total population of 2.8 million people live in the South Wales coastal area, where the three biggest towns are located: Swansea, Cardiff and Newport. The Welsh are very proud of their language and culture. These are best preserved in the north and west of the country, for in the south and east they have been more challenged by industrialization. The west coast, mid Wales and North Wales are wild and beautiful.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4 psl., 4,99 kB)
Windsor castle
2009-06-06
The developement of the castle. The private chapel. The grand vestibule. The queen's drawing room. The king's dining room. Winsor Castle is one of the official recidences of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The Queen is Head of State of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and also Head of the Commonwealth. The monarch’s direct powers these days are limited: as a constitutional sovereign The Queen normally acts on the advice of her ministers; nevertheless the government, the judges and the armed services all act in The Queen’s name and she is an important symbol of national unity. She is kept closely informed about all aspects of national life and the Prime Minister has a weekly audience with her.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (9 psl., 7,67 kB)
Simla agreement
2009-06-02
This agreement on Bilateral Relations between India and Pakistan was signed after the 1971 India-Pakistan War, in which Pakistan was defeated conclusively and which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh. India refrained from attacking or finishing off Pakistan and signed this agreement with the hope that henceforth the countries in the region would be able to live in peace with each other. The then Pakistani Prime Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, also promised the then Indian Prime Minister, Mrs Indira Gandhi, that his country would accept the Line of Control (LOC) in the state of J&K as the de facto border and would not try ot de-stabilise it. This was not formally entered in the agreement because Bhutto said it would cause domestic problems for him at this juncture. Mrs Gandhi magnanimously accepted his promise and did not formalise that part of the agreement. But Pakistan, as later events were to prove, never kept its part of the deal.
Politologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 4,92 kB)
Kashmir
2009-06-02
The beginning of the new millennium has been a heart wrecking one for the peace loving people of the world. The year 2001 saw dispute, destruction, and death — all in the name of religion. Once again, India and Pakistan are on the brink of a war. Why are these two siblings always at loggerheads with each other? Is it because Pakistan is an Islamic nation and India predominantly a land of Hindus? No, the reasons are more political than religious. It's hard to imagine that Kashmir, one of the most beautiful places in South Asia, inhabited by a peaceful populace, can become the bone of contention between the two countries.
Politologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (4 psl., 9,09 kB)
Kashmiri struggle
2009-06-02
Those who are trying to project the present struggle as religious one are deliberately trying to confuse the issue. Their aim is very clear - they don't want the issue to be resolved. It is clear to everyone that by projecting the Kashmiri struggle as religious (which is known as "Islamic fundamentalist struggle"), we are only trying to deprive it from desperately needed internal and external support. Also by projecting it as a fundamentalist or extremist movement, an attempt is being made to frighten off the non Muslims of Kashmir. Already a lot of damage has been done to the social and community harmony, and such attempts are made to ensure that the minorities of Kashmir remain divided.
Politologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 4,72 kB)
Topics
2009-05-20
Education. Health and body care. Free time, entertainment. Services. Shopping. Everybody has a right to education in Lithuania. The secondary education is compulsory. Nowadays the life in our country is very difficult and a lot of young people don’t go to school, they haven’t even got secondary education. There are a lot of young people, children especially in big town’s streets.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 10,95 kB)
I choose subject risk and benefit of starting a new business. This topic is quite interesting for me and necessary to know how it is developing recently. It is interesting, because many people are starting their business nowadays, they want to have independence and earn a lot of money. So it is useful to read articles of people which business was and is prosperous, how they succeeded. Why people start their business? Are they exceptional? What is the risk to lose everything?
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (9 psl., 19,39 kB)
Charles Chaplin. Galileo. The elderly in America. A camping trip. Tips for travellers. Charles Spencer Chaplin was the comedian, the greatest film comic in the history of mankind. The actor was born in 1889 in the London East End. Sydney was his brother, fuor years older than Charles. Chaplin’s parents were actors. Two children adored their mother for her blue eyes and long light brown hair. Littlle Charlie cuoldn’t remember his father. Mother told him that he was a very good artist.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5 psl., 10,1 kB)
The twelve months of the year are divided into four seasons. March, April and May are spring months. March is the month when the ground starts to thaw and the snow melts again. At the end of this month you can see many violets and anemones in the forests with some butterflies and bees on them Spring is my mother's favourite season.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,22 kB)
Britain customs
2009-05-19
Summer. Autumn. Winter. Spring. Summer (June, July and August) is a relaxing time when the Brithish make the most of the warm sunshine. Nothing can be more pleasant that a leisurely picnic in the heard of the countryside, a peaceful cruise down the river or for the more active a hike along our dramatic coastline.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5 psl., 5,61 kB)
Slow but wins the race. Take things as they come and be content. He that nothing questions, nothing learns. When things are at the worst, they begin to mend. Love all, trust a few. Do wrong to none: be able for your enemy. Rather in power that use, and keep your friend. Under your own life’s key: be checked for silence, but never taxed for speech.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (6 psl., 6,66 kB)
The New York scene reveals many traces of … unrest. Insecurity reigs. Almost everyone hates his job. Psychiatrists of all schools are as common as monks in the Thebaid. “Who is your analyst?” will disarm any interviewer; books on how to be happy, how to attain peace of mind, how to win friends and influence people, how to breath, how to achiece a cheap sentimental humanism at other people’s expense, how to become a Chinaman like Lin Yutang and make a lot of money, how to be a Baba’i or breed chickens all sell in millions.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5 psl., 17,28 kB)
The American people
2009-05-19
American Friendliness. The Violent American. American Provincialism. Americans can be very generous. Once a girlfriend and I hitchhiked from Los Angeles to San Francisco. What I liked was that the people who picked up were very worried about us. They always wanted to help us. One couple asked us if we wanted money so that we could take a bus instead of hitchhiking.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5 psl., 5,73 kB)
Judaism
2009-05-18
Judaism is the oldest of the monotheistic faiths. It affirms the existence of one God, Yahweh, who entered into covenant with the descendants of Abraham, God's chosen people. Judaism's holy writings reveal how God has been present with them throughout their history. These writings are known as the Torah, specifically the five books of Moses, but most broadly conceived as the Hebrew Scriptures (traditionally called the Old Testament by Christians) and the compilation of oral tradition known as the Talmud (which includes the Mishnah, the oral law).
Teologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 6,17 kB)
Islam
2009-05-18
Islam, one of the three major monotheistic faiths, was founded in Arabia by Muhammad between 610 and 632. There are an estimated 5.5 million Muslims in North America and 1 billion Muslims worldwide. Muhammad was born in A.D. 570 at Mecca and belonged to the Quraysh tribe, which was active in the caravan trade. At the age of 25 he joined the trade from Mecca to Syria in the employment of a rich widow, Khadija, whom he later married.
Teologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 5,28 kB)
Hinduism
2009-05-18
Hinduism is the major religion of India, practiced by more than 80% of the population. In contrast to other religions, it has no founder. Considered the oldest religion in the world, it dates back, perhaps, to prehistoric times. No single creed or doctrine binds Hindus together. Intellectually there is complete freedom of belief, and one can be monotheist, polytheist, or atheist.
Teologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 4,61 kB)
Christianity
2009-05-18
Christianity is a monotheistic religion founded by the followers of Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus, a Jew, was born in about 7 B.C. and assumed his public life, probably after his 30th year, in Galilee. The New Testament Gospels describe Jesus as a teacher and miracle worker. He proclaimed the kingdom of God, a future reality that is at the same time already present.
Teologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 5,45 kB)
Buddhism
2009-05-18
Buddhism was founded in the fourth or fifth century B.C. in northern India by a man known traditionally as Siddhartha (meaning “he who has reached the goal”) Gautama, the son of a warrior prince. Some scholars believe that he lived from 563 to 483 B.C., though his exact life span is uncertain. Troubled by the inevitability of suffering in human life, he left home and a pampered life at the age of 29 to wander as an ascetic, seeking religious insight and a solution to the struggles of human existence.
Teologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 5,18 kB)
Entertainment
2009-05-03
One of my favourite thing is poetry which helps me to understand the outside world, brings to my mind the strength of the human spirit, the beauty of man. Poetry helps me to educate myself. When I have some spare time I create poems too. I’m going to publish my creative work in the future. But I know I must work very hard if I want to charm my readers. I wont to appeal to people’s hearts & minds of people, to their feeling & ideals. I’m also interested in architecture so I like to visit the places where I can see how people lived in the past, old buildings, castles. I like Gediminas castle, which foundation is guarded by the “Iron wolf” legend.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3 psl., 8,08 kB)
Euro - disadvantages and advantages. Millenium. Vilnius – european capital of culture 2009. Politics. Olympic games. National parks.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (5 psl., 22,23 kB)
Missing lessons
2009-02-19
Last school year 13 percent of secondary school pupils missed lessons because of spending time in Internet cafes. To tell the truth, I was shocked when found out this information. I think that nowadays need for entertainment wins against the necessity for knowledge.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 7,76 kB)
Anglų k. rašinėlis ("Argumentative essay (for and against)" tipo) tema "The school-leaving age should be raised to 21".
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 7,62 kB)
Topic about reading
2008-11-06
Pagalba ruošiantis anglų kalbos egzamino kalbėjimo daliai.
Lietuvių kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 44,81 kB)
Pagalba ruošiantis anglų kalbos egzamino kalbėjimo daliai.
Lietuvių kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (8 psl., 19,36 kB)