Referatai, kursiniai, diplominiai

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I am bound to say, occasionally to embellish, you have given prominence not so much to the many causes celebres and sensational trials in which I have figured but rather to those incidents which may have been trivial in themselves, but which have given room for those faculties of deduction and of logical synthesis which I have made my special province." "And yet," said I, smiling, "I cannot quite hold myself absolved from the charge of sensationalism which has been urged against my records." "You have erred, perhaps," he observed, taking up a glowing cinder with the tongs and lighting with it the long cherry-wood pipe which was wont to replace his clay when he was in a disputatious rather than a meditative mood -" you have erred perhaps in attempting to put colour and life into each of your statements instead of confining yourself to the task of placing upon record that severe reasoning from cause to effect which is really the only notable feature about the thing." "It seems to me that I have done you full justice in the matter," I remarked with some coldness, for I was repelled by the egotism which I had more than once observed to be a strong factor in my friend’s singular character. "No, it is not selfishness or conceit," said he, answering, as was his wont, my thoughts rather than my words. "If I claim full justice for my art, it is because it is an impersonal thing - a thing beyond myself. Crime is common. Logic is rare. Therefore it is upon the logic rather than upon the crime that you should dwell. You have degraded what should have been a course of lectures into a series of tales." It was a cold morning of the early spring, and we sat after breakfast on either side of a cheery fire in the old room at Baker Street. A thick fog rolled down between the lines of dun-coloured houses, and the opposing windows loomed like dark, shapeless blurs through the heavy yellow wreaths. Our gas was lit and shone on the white cloth and glimmer of china and metal, for the table had not been cleared yet. Sherlock Holmes had been silent all the morning, dipping continuously into the advertisement columns of a succession of papers until at last, having apparently given up his search, he had emerged in no very sweet temper to lecture me upon my literary shortcomings. "At the same time," he remarked after a pause, during which he had sat puffing at his long pipe and gazing down into the fire, "you can hardly be open to a charge of sensationalism, for out of these cases which you have been so kind as to interest yourself in, a fair proportion do not treat of crime, in its legal sense, at all. The small matter in which I endeavoured to help the King of Bohemia, the singular experience of Miss Mary Sutherland, the problem connected with the man with the twisted lip, and the incident of the noble bachelor, were all matters which are outside the pale of the law. But in avoiding the sensational, I fear that you may have bordered on the trivial."
. It is, however, unfortunately impossible entirely to separate the sensational from the criminal, and a chronicler is left in the dilemma that he must either sacrifice details which are essential to his statement and so give a false impression of the problem, or he must use matter which chance, and not choice, has provided him with. With this short preface I shall turn to my notes of what proved to be a strange, though a peculiarly terrible, chain of events. It was a blazing hot day in August. Baker Street was like an oven, and the glare of the sunlight upon the yellow brickwork of the house across the road was painful to the eye. It was hard to believe that these were the same walls which loomed so gloomily through the fogs of winter. Our blinds were half-drawn, and Holmes lay curled upon the sofa, reading and re-reading a letter which he had received by the morning post. For myself, my term of service in India had trained me to stand heat better than cold, and a thermometer at ninety was no hardship. But the morning paper was uninteresting. Parliament had risen. Everybody was out of town, and I yearned for the glades of the New Forest or the shingle of Southsea. A depleted bank account had caused me to postpone my holiday, and as to my companion, neither the country nor the sea presented the slightest attraction to him. He loved to lie in the very centre of five millions of people, with his filaments stretching out and running through them, responsive to every little rumour or suspicion of unsolved crime. Appreciation of nature found no place among his many gifts, and his only change was when he turned his mind from the evil-doer of the town to track down his brother of the country. Finding that Holmes was too absorbed for conversation I had tossed aside the barren paper, and leaning back in my chair I fell into a brown study. Suddenly my companion's voice broke in upon my thoughts: "You are right, Watson," said he. "It does seem a most preposterous way of settling a dispute." "Most preposterous!" I exclaimed, and then suddenly realizing how he had echoed the inmost thought of my soul, I sat up in my chair and stared at him in blank amazement. "What is this, Holmes?" I cried. "This is beyond anything which I could have imagined." He laughed heartily at my perplexity. "You remember," said he, "that some little time ago when I read you the passage in one of Poe's sketches in which a close reasoner follows the unspoken thoughts of his companion, you were inclined to treat the matter as a mere tour-de-force of the author. On my remarking that I was constantly in the habit of doing the same thing you expressed incredulity."
The second and third had been patiently occupied upon a subject which he had recently made his hobby- the music of the Middle Ages. But when, for the fourth time, after pushing back our chairs from breakfast we saw the greasy, heavy brown swirl still drifting past us and condensing in oily drops upon the window-panes, my comrade's impatient and active nature could endure this drab existence no longer. He paced restlessly about our sitting-room in a fever of suppressed energy, biting his nails, tapping the furniture, and chafing against inaction. "Nothing of interest in the paper, Watson?" he said. I was aware that by anything of interest, Holmes meant anything of criminal interest. There was the news of a revolution, of a possible war, and of an impending change of government; but these did not come within the horizon of my companion. I could see nothing recorded in the shape of crime which was not commonplace and futile. Holmes groaned and resumed his restless meanderings. "The London criminal is certainly a dull fellow," said he in the querulous voice of the sportsman whose game has failed him. "Look out of this window, Watson. See how the figures loom up, are dimly seen, and then blend once more into the cloud-bank. The thief or the murderer could roam London on such a day as the tiger does the jungle, unseen until he pounces, and then evident only to his victim." "There have," said I, "been numerous petty thefts." Holmes snorted his contempt. "This great and sombre stage is set for something more worthy than that," said he. "It is fortunate for this community that I am not a criminal." "It is, indeed!" said I heartily. "Suppose that I were Brooks or Woodhouse, or any of the fifty men who have good reason for taking my life, how long could I survive against my own pursuit? A summons, a bogus appointment, and all would be over. It is well they don't have days of fog in the Latin countries- the countries of assassination. By Jove! here comes something at last to break our dead monotony." It was the maid with a telegram. Holmes tore it open and burst out laughing. "Well, well! What next?" said he. "Brother Mycroft is coming round." "Why not?" I asked. "Why not? It is as if you met a tram-car coming down a country lane. Mycroft has his rails and he runs on them. His Pall Mall lodgings, the Diogenes Club, Whitehall- that is his cycle. Once, and only once, he has been here. What upheaval can possibly have derailed him?" "Does he not explain?" Holmes handed me his brother's telegram. - Must see you over Cadogan West. Coming at once. MYCROFT. - "Cadogan West? I have heard the name." "It recalls nothing to my mind. But that Mycroft should break out in this erratic fashion! A planet might as well leave its orbit. By the way, do you know what Mycroft is?"
So unworldly was he- or so capricious- that he frequently refused his help to the powerful and wealthy where the problem made no appeal to his sympathies, while he would devote weeks of most intense application to the affairs of some humble client whose case presented those strange and dramatic qualities which appealed to his imagination and challenged his ingenuity. In this memorable year '95, a curious and incongruous succession of cases had engaged his attention, ranging from his famous investigation of the sudden death of Cardinal Tosca- an inquiry which was carried out by him at the express desire of His Holiness the Pope- down to his arrest of Wilson, the notorious canary-trainer, which removed a plague-spot from the East End of London. Close on the heels of these two famous cases came the tragedy of Woodman's Lee, and the very obscure circumstances which surrounded the death of Captain Peter Carey. No record of the doings of Mr. Sherlock Holmes would be complete which did not include some account of this very unusual affair. During the first week of July, my friend had been absent so often and so long from our lodgings that I knew he had something on hand. The fact that several rough-looking men called during that time and inquired for Captain Basil made me understand that Holmes was working somewhere under one of the numerous disguises and names with which he concealed his own formidable identity. He had at least five small refuges in different parts of London, in which he was able to change his personality. He said nothing of his business to me, and it was not my habit to force a confidence. The first positive sign which he gave me of the direction which his investigation was taking was an extraordinary one. He had gone out before breakfast, and I had sat down to mine when he strode into the room, his hat upon his head and a huge barbed-headed spear tucked like an umbrella under his arm. "Good gracious, Holmes!" I cried. "You don't mean to say that you have been walking about London with that thing?" "I drove to the butcher's and back." "The butcher's?" "And I return with an excellent appetite. There can be no question, my dear Watson, of the value of exercise before breakfast. But I am prepared to bet that you will not guess the form that my exercise has taken." "I will not attempt it." He chuckled as he poured out the coffee. "If you could have looked into Allardyce's back shop, you would have seen a dead pig swung from a hook in the ceiling, and a gentleman in his shirt sleeves furiously stabbing at it with this weapon. I was that energetic person, and I have satisfied myself that by no exertion of my strength can I transfix the pig with a single blow. Perhaps you would care to try?" "Not for worlds. But why were you doing this?" "Because it seemed to me to have an indirect bearing upon the mystery of Woodman's Lee. Ah, Hopkins, I got your wire last night, and I have been expecting you. Come and join us." Our visitor was an exceedingly alert man, thirty years of age, dressed in a quiet tweed suit, but retaining the erect bearing of one who was accustomed to official uniform. I recognized him at once as Stanley Hopkins, a young police inspector, for whose future Holmes had high hopes, while he in turn professed the admiration and respect of a pupil for the scientific methods of the famous amateur. Hopkins's brow was clouded, and he sat down with an air of deep dejection.
Teenagers criminals
Last year teenagers committed about 535 crimes. During one-year period delinquency raised 16.6%. Biggest part of crimes was committed by teenagers aged from 13 to 19. Thefts from cars are 42.3% and burgalyries-31.5% off all committed crimes. Every 6th crime is burglary. Films of violence, detailed crime stories in the press have a big influence for crimes increasing. In 1998 investigated 47 teenagers’ burglaries in Siauliai, this year, after 4 months - 28. 22 of them were investigated. Comparing with last year Siauliai has 46.7% increases. Dogging adult’s steps teenagers begin extort wealth, cheat, make drugs, use guns, process money, resell burglaries things. Statistic shows that drunk or intoxicated teenagers made many crimes. From 615 criminals 249 are pupil from secondary school. 53% guilty juveniles don’t study or work. We can group teenager criminals into two groups. One group of them become criminals, because those teenagers are weakling persons, their friends make great influence on them on their way of thinking or by these friends help they do a crime for fun. Other group of teenager’s criminals does crimes for their bad social status. How a teenager can become a criminal? Teenager can become a criminal when: • This teenager’s friends make great influence on him on his way of thinking. • This teenager is a weakling person and he can’t resist the temptation to alcohol, drugs, so he does a crime, because at that moment he did not understand what he was doing, because he was drunk. • This teenager does not have what to do in his spare time, so he does a crime just for having fun. • This teenager’s social status is bad, so he does a crime for having money. What kind of teenager criminals are in Lithuania? A teenager criminal can be: • vandal (a person who likes to draw on the cars, walls, houses, who likes to brake something); • filches (some kind of stealer); • pilferer (some kind of stealer); • pugnacious person (a person who likes to fight against somebody); • burglar (a person who steals from the houses); • rapist (a person who likes to rape women); • racketeer (a person who orders another person to give all his money); As we all know the bigger part of teenager criminals are of male sex. And we also know that a teenager criminal is not so dangerous like a professional criminal, who has got lots of experience in that sphere. And that a teenager criminal’s way of life could be easily changed to another way of life, normal way of life, just you have to show that there is another way of living. Police account Why do youngsters become criminals? It’s the question, which bothers a lot of people. Here are some reasons why that happen: Youngsters don’t have interesting facilities and hobbies These are the main things why youngsters become criminals. Now we want to tell some ideas how to solve this problem. Should be some educational centers where young people could find a professional psychologist that would help a lot. Schools should try to help solve that problem and organize some lectures for students about crimes, drugs, how drugs can make people do very bad things. We were explaining how to solve that problem, but we forgot to tell what kinds of crimes are most popular. There are a lot of hooligans, but it isn’t the biggest problem in our country. They have a lot of problems with muggers, because they are getting money like that for drugs and then they start feeling bad and start robbing (old ladies), stealing or even burgling. That makes a lot of problems for police officers. And the other kind of crimes is shoplifting (that is the most popular kind of crimes) Very many shops loose a lot of money, because of that. And the main thing with shoplifters is that they get used to it and become addict. We think you want to ask why police isn’t doing anything about that. But they do. They try to organize some summer caps for youngsters try to take them to psychologist or to talk with them; some times they organize shows for pupil. So I think you can’t say that police is doing nothing.
Technology progress
Now we are talking about such things like Internet, computerized information systems, information databases. These things are closely connected to our life and we couldn’t imagine living without them. Not only couldn’t a person live without these new technologies. Now everything – banks, airports, governmental system, telephony, etc. are based on latest technologies. Why is it all so necessary? It is only because a man needs to know more and reach more than he has and knows now. Scientists search for other life in space and they use latest technology – everything is computerized. Now we can see the progress of congnitivistics – computer intellect. Maybe after 10 or more years we will have thinking computerized systems, which will ease our life even more. This information revolution affects all the people. 10 years ago there were only 4-5% working people, who worked with information. Now this percent exceeds to 70% and it’s growing fast. And so we are talking about information society. For Lithuanian people it is very hard to overcome our old beliefs, when we lived in Soviet Union. Of course it will take some time, but it will be only useful. Information becomes a strategically important element in everyday life and in every organization that wants to be successful. We must go together with technology because this is the only way to achieve more. Technology is developing and every tomorrow can be very surprising for us. Technology progress never stops. But we must also remember that technology can be also dangerous and bring as much harm as good. It is good that we have lasers and other related technology when they are used to cure people and for good purposes. But when this technology turns back to us with very unfriendly intentions then it can be too late. So we must be aware of this and maybe this is the only disadvantage of technology progress.
In 1919 the Russian army was driven from most of Lithuania. A peace treaty was signed, and Russia recognized Lithuania’s sovereignty over Vilnius. But Poland, which had been seeking to recover territory lost during the 18th century, seized the city, after which Kaunas became the capital of Lithuania. From 1920 Lithuania was independent until, as a result of the 1939 pact between the Nazis and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), it was invaded by Soviet forces. During World War II, the USSR lost possession of Lithuania for a short time, but by 1944 it had re-established firm control. Thousands of armed partisan fighters, known as the “Forest Brothers”, continued their fight for national sovereignty, but during Stalin’s regime Lithuania suffered repression and mass deportations. Relations were less confrontational after the 1950s, but Lithuanians never gave up their goal of independence. In 1990 the country was one of the first republics to declare independence from the USSR, which was by then too unstable to force Lithuania back into the Union. Many countries quickly recognized Lithuania’s sovereignty, as did Russia and other former Soviet republics after the break-up of the USSR in 1991. The Lithuanian government, led by members of a political coalition called Saj?dis, embarked on a radical programme to reform the economy and other social structures, but progress was slow and painful. In national elections held in 1992, voters rejected the Saj?dis leadership in favour of former Communists, who had formed a new political party advocating slower reform and closer ties with neighbouring countries, especially Russia. The new government pledged to remain committed to democracy, but slowed privatization and other reform measures to soften the impact of political and social change. In August 1993 all remaining Russian troops withdrew from Lithuania, leaving the people free to concentrate on building a stable and prosperous country. Economy There was rapid industrialization after World War II, and by 1991 industry accounted for 43 per cent of Lithuania’s gross domestic product (GDP), and agriculture for about 28 per cent. The country makes precision machinery and spare parts, processed foods, and light industrial products. The main exports are machinery and parts, meat and dairy products, and consumer goods. Lithuania has very few natural resources, so the country depends heavily on imported raw materials. Imports include oil and gas, chemicals, metals, and equipment. Output declined after independence, because traditional supply arrangements were interrupted, but Lithuania is seeking ties with Western governments and neighbouring countries to increase revenue, foreign investment, and productivity. After independence, the Sajūdis government introduced a radical reform programme involving privatization and price liberalization. As in all former Communist countries that are moving towards a market economy, the initial results were rising inflation and falling living standards. By 1994, however, there were signs of recovery. The national currency is the litas.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (22,56 kB)
Sleep disorders
INSOMNIA The term insomnia is used in reference to complaints about a symptom, namely, dissatisfaction with the amount or quality of one’s sleep. Whether or not a person has insomnia is almost always a subjective decision. A difficult feature of insomnia is that people seem to overestimate their sleep loss. One study that monitored the sleep of people who identified themselves as insomniacs found that only about half of them were actually awake as much as 30 minutes during the night. The problem may be that light or restless sleep sometimes fells like wakefulness or that some people remember only time spent awake and think they have not slept because they have no memory of doing so. NARCOLEPSY AND APNEA Two relatively rare but severe sleep disorders are narcolepsy and apnea. A person with narcolepsy may fall asleep while writing a letter, driving a car, or carrying on a conversation. Individuals with this dysfunction have recurring, irresistible attacks of drowsiness (apsnūdimas). These episodes can occur several times a day in severe cases, and last from a few second to 15-30 minutes. Essentially, narcolepsy is the intrusion (įsibrovimas) of REM episodes into daytime hours. During attacks victims go quickly into a REM state, so rapidly in fact that they may lose muscle control and collapse (smarkiai nusilpti) before they can lie down, they may report experiencing hallucinations. Narcolepsy runs in families, and there is evidence that a specific gene or combination of genes confers susceptibility (teikia jautruma) to the disorder. In sleep apnea the individual stops breathing while asleep. There are two reasons for apnea attacks. One reason is that the brain fails to send a “breathe” signal to the diaphragm and other breathing muscles, thus causing breathing to stop. The other reason is that muscles art the top of the throat become too relaxed, allowing the windpipe (gerklė, trachėja) to partially close, thereby forcing the breathing muscles to pull harder on incoming air, which causes the airway to completely collapse. During an apnea, the oxygen level of the blood drops dramatically, leading to the secretion of emergency hormones. This reaction causes the sleeper to awaken in order to begin breathing again. Most people have a few apneas a night, but people with severe sleep problems may have several hundred apneas per night. With each apnea they wake up in order to resume breathing, but these arousals are so brief they are generally unaware of doing so. The result is that those who suffer from apnea can spend 12 or more hours in bed each night and still be so sleepy the next day that they cannot function and will fall asleep even in the middle of a conversation. Sleep apnea is common among older men. Not waking up is probably one of the main reasons people die in their sleep. SLEEP DEPRIVATION (miego atėmimas, netekimas) . The need for sleep seems so important that we might expect being deprived of sleep for several nights to have serious consequences. Numerous studies have shown, however, that the only consistent effects of sleep deprivation are drowsiness, a desire to sleep, and a tendency to fall asleep easily. Subjects kept awake for 50 hours or more show nothing more noticeable than transient inattentions, confusions, or misperceptions. Even sleepless periods exceeding four days produce little in the way of severely disturbed behavior. In one study in which a subject was kept awake for 11 days and nights, there were no unusually deviant responses. Intellectual activities such as answering short test questions seem unaffected by several nights of sleep deprivation. ADVICE FOR A GOOD NIGHT’S SLEEP. • Establish a regular schedule of going to bed and getting up • Stay away form caffeinated drinks like coffee or cola for several hours before bedtime. Drink milk. • Don’t eat heavily before going to bed • Regular exercise will help you sleep better • Relax before bedtime, avoid stressful thoughts
Shopping to most of us mainly emphasizes satisfaction of getting away from a daily routine. Some of the shoppers find themselves more relaled and cheerful after they have purchased a new garment. Like every girl I enjoy my time shopping because I like to renew my wardrobe and update my style with the newest fashions. However, shopping would get to dull if it became my daily routine. I prefer an unexpected trips to the shopping stores whenever in feeling down as it livens me up and brings more enjoyment. I favour shopping in local stores then internet shopping. It is because I like to walk around, relax, and concentrate on my shopping also meet my friends. I also prefer to shop at stores rather then online, because I find it a great fun to go on shopping trips with my girlfriends as we always have a laugh. In the shops I find a wider choice of garments to buy. When shopping online you have to take extra responsibility as you can not rely or some of the web-sites. Once you order online you may find it harder to exchange or return the product rather then buying it back to shop. In my opinion, shopping both ways most of us more find great bargains as there is a large number of clothes and prices to chose from. I think it is very polite when the shop assistant comes over to the customers asking if they feel alright it is a very good customer servise
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,58 kB)
There is lot of risky things, about which we do not know anything. And of course, we do not worry about it to much. We do not care, that loud noise has influence to color-blindness. We do not know how many harmful material we inhale with polluted air. We do not know what kind of chemical material was used to make ice-cream, which we eat, look so nice. At last, are you sure, that you know all diseases, which threaten to you? We run the risk, this way. Second group of risky things would be risk, about which we know and which we ignore. I am sure, that everybody knows about tabacco and lungs cancer. I am not sure, that everybody cares. It is maybe because these dangerous things, like smoking, crossing street not in pedestrian crossing, eating lot of junk food are quite invisible. If we could see how Tobacco damages our lungs in real-time through microscope - we won’t smoke. If we could see man, who dies in car accident near by us - we won’t cross street not in pedestrian crossing anymore. What can you say about junk food and heart diseases? Sure, they are related. But until you can not see this relationship with the naked eye - you’ll keep eating junk fund and run a risk to die. Third, and of course, most interesting group of dangerous things and actions - things, which we are worried about. We notice them. We are afraid of them. We thing, that we will decrease the level of risk by avoiding them. We discuss about them: what is less risky - plane, car or ship? We thing, that right decision will help us to save our lifes or make them longer. I am sure, that right decision about decreasing level of risk would be very simple. Less thinking about it. Do not make silly things, just less worry about safety, which is related with cars, ships, planes, youth wars in the streets, guns, chemical stuff in air, neutral power stations, falling asteroids, etc. Enjoy life. That’s best decision.
There is lot of risky things, about which we do not know anything. And of course, we do not worry about it to much. We do not care, that loud noise has influence to color-blindness. We do not know how many harmful material we inhale with polluted air. We do not know what kind of chemical material was used to make ice-cream, which we eat, look so nice. At last, are you sure, that you know all diseases, which threaten to you? We run the risk, this way. Second group of risky things would be risk, about which we know and which we ignore. I am sure, that everybody knows about tabacco and lungs cancer. I am not sure, that everybody cares. It is maybe because these dangerous things, like smoking, crossing street not in pedestrian crossing, eating lot of junk food are quite invisible. If we could see how Tobacco damages our lungs in real-time through microscope - we won’t smoke. If we could see man, who dies in car accident near by us - we won’t cross street not in pedestrian crossing anymore. What can you say about junk food and heart diseases? Sure, they are related. But until you can not see this relationship with the naked eye - you’ll keep eating junk fund and run a risk to die. Third, and of course, most interesting group of dangerous things and actions - things, which we are worried about. We notice them. We are afraid of them. We thing, that we will decrease the level of risk by avoiding them. We discuss about them: what is less risky - plane, car or ship? We thing, that right decision will help us to save our lifes or make them longer. I am sure, that right decision about decreasing level of risk would be very simple. Less thinking about it. Do not make silly things, just less worry about safety, which is related with cars, ships, planes, youth wars in the streets, guns, chemical stuff in air, neutral power stations, falling asteroids, etc. Enjoy life. That’s best decision.
Recognizing Stress
Post-traumatic stress disorder may develop immediately after the disaster, or it may be brought on by some minor stress weeks, months, or even years later. And it may last a long time. A study of survivors of Nazi concentration camps found that 97 percent were still troubled with anxiety 20 years after they were freed from the camps. Many still relived the traumas of persecution in their dreams and were fearful that something terrible would happen to their spouses or their children whenever they were out of sight.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (24,96 kB)
Reactions to stress
Post-traumatic stress disorder may develop immediately after the disaster, or it may be brought on by some minor stress weeks, months, or even years later. And it may last a long time. A study of survivors of Nazi concentration camps found that 97 percent were still troubled with anxiety 20 years after they were freed from the camps. Many still relived the traumas of persecution in their dreams and were fearful that something terrible would happen to their spouses or their children whenever they were out of sight.
Periodontitis resultsfrom the same local and systemic factors that cause gingivitis. The severity and duration of these factors and resistance of patients influence the rate of osseous resorption. Lots of supporting tissue is caused by bacterial activity. Loss of attachment ocurs in irregular bursts of disease activity folowed by periods of remission. Periodontitis may affect only a few teeth at one time. Several types of periodontitis: adult periodontitis is the most common form of the disease. Adolescents may develop a severe and rapidly progressing form of periodontitis. Symptoms and signs. early symptoms are similar to those of gingivitis. The gingival pockets between the gingiva and the teeth deepen, calculus enlarge, bone loss begins. The pocket collect debris andallow microbes to proliferate. Treatment: scaling and root planning are clinical methods _ they involve the removal of calculus and plaque. Hand and ultrasonic instruments are used.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,09 kB)
Present Simple Use 1.To express an action that happens again and again, that is a habit. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. Nick always helps his friends. 2.To express a fact which is always true. Rockets fly faster than airplanes. Expressions: always every day usually sometimes never Present Continuous Use: express an activity that is happening at the moment of speaking What are you doing now? express an activity or situation that is true now but it is not necessarity happening at the moment of speaking. Don’t take the book I am reading it. 3. to express a temporary activity I’am living with my friends until I find a place to live 4. to express a planned future arangement I am having a meeting with my classmates tomorrow We don’t use Present Continuous with words: like believe know think want remember hope neeed remember Past Simple Use 1. to express a finished action in the past I bought this book in Vilnius. 2. to express actions which follow each other in the story Shakespeare was born in England. He wrote hamlet in 1599. He died in1637. 3. to express a past situation or habit Jack played chess very well when he was a small boy. Past Simple time expressions Last night Two days ago I did Yesterday morning in 1985 When I was young Past Continuous Use 1. to express an activity in progress in the past. When I woke up it was snowing describe a situation or activity during the period in the past Jan looked lovely. She waswearing green dress. 3. to express an interrupted past activity I was sweeping the dust when the vaz broke. 4. to express an ninconplete activity in the past in order to contrast with the past simple which expresses a conpleted activity. I was reading a book during the flight 5. the past simle is usually used to express a repeated past habit or situation. I went out with Jack But past continuous can used if a reapeated past habit becomes a longer ‘setting’ for something I was going out with Jack when I first met Harry
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,97 kB)
Talking about types of music I like, I must say that I like music which is popular in Lithuania. However, when I feel sad or tired I tend to listen to club music. That kind of music makes people not to think about daily routine, forget all the complicated situations and fall down to music. I relax while listening to music. As I am expected to talk about singers I must say that I have many favorite singers. I prefer listening to Sting. He is a great singer. His music is relaxing. It is different from others. Also I like Enrique Iglesias, Robbie Williams, ATB and many others. I should admit that my favorite singer depends on my mood. Great question is about music which I dislike. I absolutely dislike country style music, rock. I don’t listen to Lithuanian music. It is not the one I like. Mentioning Lithuanian musical groups everybody would agree that we have too many music groups and not all of them are good. For example, some groups are not good singers. They do music only for money, not for culture. Sometimes it looks that they shouldn’t sing at all as they make music awful. To sum it up, I want to notice that music is important for all of us not only as a free time spending, but also and good friend in loneliness.
My mum
I am going to talk about the person who is very important for me. Is it my mum. Her name is Rita. She is thirty-four years old. Now, she is not just my mum. She is also my friend and I like her looks as well as her features of character. My mum does not look different from others women, but for me she is very attractive. Firstly she is tall and slim. My mother has a round face with blue sparkling eyes and sweet smile with white teeth, her lips a thin and red, she has a turned up and small nose and dark eyebrows. She has short, wavy brown hair. Her skin is tanned. Besides, she is usually dressed in sports style. But sometimes when she goes to important places, she is dressed in formal clothes. Talking about my mum’s character, she is good-humored and you can not get bored with her company, for example, when I am sad she always makes me laugh by telling a joke to me. She is very outspoken and you can talk to her about everything and she always gives you advice. Also she is very sensitive. When she is hurt she sometimes begins to cry. However, like every person she has got some drawbacks. For example, she can be angry at times and nervous, especially when she has got a bad day. Impatient is another negative feature of her character. When she asks me to do something I have to do it at once without hesitation. As far as my mom’s free time is concerned, she loves listening to music, meeting her friends, collecting old coins and going in for sports. As you can see she spends her leisure in a very interesting way. In conclude, my mum is a person I always admire despite her negative features of her character. Besides, I am so happy to have someone to rely on.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,16 kB)
I remember how a girl from 12th form gave me a pencil and my first exercise book, how she took me to the inside-yard of the school to listen a boring speech of the director. Then I remember how I found my seat in the very last desk in the middle row in the class. And my first desk-friend later became one of my best friends, even now, when he is studying in Vilnius, we sometimes meet each other. Another thing that I remember from the first class, is my teacher, who is already retired now. I loved her like “a good aunt”, I guess, sure not when she wrote me a bad mark. Other impressive thing that happened for me at school is when we finished 4th form and entered a completely new way of life - we were allowed to walk everywhere in the school, every lesson was in another place and we had a lot of teachers. I really disliked that system, but I couldn’t change it at all. Then, after couple of years I left my native school and moved to Belgium. There I also went to school, called “Humaniora” - it would be “gymnazium” in Lithuanian. And the biggest impression there was that students there were looking more serious in what they did. Sure, in a free-time you can see a lot of guys and girls smoking, sometimes drinking, they are dressed unordinary, bet at school every of them becomes good, diligent and friendly. They know what they want from the school, and they get it. And then……… I came to the school called “Rygiškių Jonas secondary school”. Maybe it was a mistake, maybe not - but, anywhere, I’m here and that’s all. I can’t say that this school is good, bad or better, it’s like all other schools in Lithuania. It’s made not to fit the child, here child must fit the school. But, I think, a lot depends on the student himself, his behavior, his minds, his wish. Of course, there are some teachers, like everywhere in the world, that are intractable, but they are minority. And all other teachers really wants (I think so, at least) us to have only good memories of our school days.
I think that money is very important to get married. If I haven't money I won't be able to maintain family. Sometimes I dream about the lawyer's profession. Sometimes I want to be an actor. If I enter the university , I would like to study book-keeping. I like that kind of work. I like paper work, maybe it is in my blood. My father, my aunt and my uncle are book-keepers. People who have this profession are required in every firm, or in another organisations. This profession is very old. I think that it was founded , when people made money. It was long time ago. Some people think that this profession is not very interesting, I don't agree with them. If I don't enter the university , I'll try to enter a private college. There I would like to study how to rule banks. I think this profession is very progressive now. I can't say that I will choose one of these professions. It is only my dreams. If I want to study one of these professions I must work harder than now.
To be useful, test must meet certain specifications. Studies of reliability tell us whether test scores are consistent over time. Studies of validity tell us how well a test measures what it is intended to measure - how well it predicts according to an acceptable criterion. Uniform testing procedures are necessary for a test to be reliable and valid.
Anglų kalba  Straipsniai   (3,83 kB)
Mass media
Good morning, today I`m going to speak about ‘Mass media’. To start with, the mass media play an important part in our lives. Newspapers, radio and especially TV inform us of what is going on in this world and give us wonderful possibilities for education and entertainment. They also influence the way we see the world and shape our views. Of course, not all newspapers and TV programmes report the events objectively but serious journalists and TV reporters try to be fair and provide us with reliable information. It is true that the world today is full of dramatic events and most news seems to be bad news. But people aren't interested in ordinary events. That is why there are so many programmes and articles about natural disasters, plane crashes, wars, murders and robberies. Good news doesn't usually make headlines. Bad news does. To my mind say that journalists are given too much freedom. They often intrude on people's private lives. They follow celebrities and print sensational stories about them which are untrue or half-true. They take photos of them in their most intimate moments. The question is — should this be allowed? The main source of news for millions of people is television. People like TV news because they can see everything with their own eyes. And that's an important advantage. Seeing, as we know, is believing. Besides, it's much more difficult for politicians to lie in front of the cameras than on the pages of newspapers. As far as can see, many people prefer the radio. It's good to listen to in the car, or in the open air, or when you do something about the house. In addition, other scours of information are newspapers. The best known are `Lietuvos rytas` and citizens  of Kaunas read `Kauno diena`. These concern themselves, as far as possible, with factual reports of major national and international news stories, with the world of politics and business and with the arts and sport. Newspapers don't react to events as quickly as TV, but they usually provide us with extra detail, comment and background information. The Internet has recently become another important source of information. It is believed that in the year of 2010 there will be at least 500 million people on the system enjoying virtual reality. It means that more and more people use Internet for searching the news instead of reading newspapers or watching news on Tv. Its main advantage is that news appears on the screen as soon as things happen in real life and you don't have to wait for news time on TV. Thanks to Internet now news are easy of access. To sum up, mass media reach very large numbers of people. For this reason it plays a significant role in our lives. More than even before, mass media offers us a window to the world and it depends only on you which scours of information to choose.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (5,11 kB)
Mark Twain
By setting The Prince and the Pauper in Tudor England, Twain found a way to indulge the public’s then fashionable taste for the British monarchy, while at the same time expressing his aversion for that selfsame monarchy, which he called “surely the grotesque’s of all swindles ever invented by man” He had also discovered a means of exposing a host of modern injustices, as well. Writing this book Twain wanted to show social inequality in England. He made the most miserable and the noblest boys as principal personages, thus he tells of very different fate of two boys who had born the same day and the same town. M. Twain wanted to tell that prince and pauper can differ only by clothes, that all people born equal rights: rich and poor.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (3,5 kB)
City & Town Overview London The capital of the United Kingdom can be divided into three distinct parts. The main commercial area is around The City, where Roman London was founded and where the medieval township grew up, dominated by the massive fortress of the Tower of London. Further west along the Thames lays Westminster, the centre of government and administration. The West End—running west from Covent Garden to Oxford Street—is the main shopping and entertainment area. Surrounding this core are districts such as Kensington, Chelsea, and Marylebone, that joined London in the 18th century, but retain a separate identity. London's attraction is its cosmopolitanism, rivaling that of New York. An imperial capital in the 19th century, it has become a vibrant world city that is home to a fascinating mix of peoples. Trafalgar Square One of the most famous Squares in the World - With Nelsons Column, the National Gallery and of course the pigeons. The Column itself is some 170 foot high, with the statue of Nelson himself being some 18 foot high. Though one would not think so viewing him from the ground. Admiral Nelson is buried in St Pauls Cathedral. landseer lions -... Named after the Naval Battle of 1805, Trafalgar Square was completed by the mid 1840's. Nelsons Column is surrounded by 4 bronze lions, on granite plinths, unveiled in 1868, sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer, and cast by Marocchetti. At the time Landseer was better known for his animal paintings. Fountains and statues, including one of Charles I on horseback, dating from the 17th century adorn the Square. Yet more sculptures in the form of bronze relief's can be found at the base of the Column depicting scenes from four of Admiral Nelson's Battles. Bus-nelson.jpg On the North side of the Square is the National Gallery, housing masterpieces by Leonardo Da Vinci, Rebens. Alongside is the National Portrait Gallery. ... On the west side is Canada House, while in the North East corner is the Church of St Martins in the Fields.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (147,08 kB)
1254. Klaipeda was granted Lübeck City Right. 1298. Because of Klaipeda’s instability determined by conflict between Lithuanian and German knights, the bishop of Kur6as moved his residence from Klaipeda to Pilten. 1328. According to the agreement of the German Order in Prussia and Livonia, Klaipeda and its surroundings were transmitted to the German Order in Prussia and later became a part of Prussia Duchy and Kingdom. 1455. Klaipeda was occupied by the Samogitians for the first time. 1525. During Reformation in Prussia, a the Lithuanian Church was established. It enabled the Lithuanian community to consolidate beside the German community. Little by little, Klaipeda started to take the traits of a multi-cultural city. 1540. A fire devastated a large part of the city. 1605. The famous German poet Simon Dach was born. In honour of the poet the sculpture of Anicke was put on the square of Theatre and has become the symbol of the Klaipeda city. 1629-1635. Klaipeda was ruled by the Swedes.
Dear Sir/Madam I am writing to ask for information about your offer tours around Vilnius. My friend come from England and want see same places like The Cathedral, The National Museum, The Town Hall, Vilnius University, Gediminas’ Tower of the Upper Castle, The Television Tower, Radvila Palace, The Gallery "Arka", The Church of St Francis and St Bernardino or other. I want get information about times of departure of tour. It’s very important for me because I’m busy at work and haven’t got a lot of free time. So if its possible please inform me about it. I want know about your prices for students. My friend is 23 years old and he is student of second course in the Cansas University . He have all necessary documents and want little bit smaller prices of this tours . So be great if you can write about it. I would be grateful if you could reply as soon possible. Yours sincerely, Holden Anderson.
How ballet can change your life Take some young people from the most disadvantaged areas in the West Midlands. Challenge them to perform 'Romeo & Juliet' as a ballet. Film every ouch, fall and tear. Present it as a TV documentary and see them performing live in Birmingham! Ballet Hoo! Is not a competition. There were no rounds of auditions, no elimination process and no search for an overall winner. Over 18 months the Ballet Hoo! Project combined ballet and the arts, fitness, personal development training and life coaching to around 100 young people to develop skills to help them better their lives. Included in the cast was 19 year-old Alethea from Smethwick. She says: "I found the whole process challenging but at the same time very rewarding. I owe everyone a whole lot for the skills I have gained and will carry with me into later life." Tybalt wrestles with the crowd This version of Romeo and Juliet, developed by Kenneth Macmillan, meant a grueling rehearsal schedule for the untrained teenagers and the Birmingham Royal Ballet professionals as they worked together - and even adapted certain scenes. They performed at the Birmingham Hippodrome in front of a packed audience on Thursday 28 September, and were filmed for the final Channel 4 documentary.The project seems to have inspired everyone involved, and the success stories are already arriving. Linden, who plays Tybalt, says: "I have recently been accepted by the National Youth Theatre and greatly enjoy acting. I hope to continue performing."The project was a partnership between Birmingham Royal Ballet, Youth at Risk and Channel 4 - who have been filming the teens along their journey. There are still a couple of the documentaries to be screened 'Ballet Changed My Life: Ballet Hoo!':
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (39,18 kB)
Each individual person has one or more hobbies. One of them likes to sing, other to collect something, or just to read books. There are a lot of hobbies. Just like drawing, dancing, acting a part, riding a horse, playing football and etc. These things help to forget problems, to relax and have a good time. My hobby is dancing. Several people think that it’s boring and no benefit taking hobby, but I don’t agree with them.For me dancing is really beneficial hobby. First thing is that you can relax and dance for self treat.  Second thing is that you uphold your form. When you dance you forget all problems and you dedicate yourself to dancing. When you are dancing you can improvise and create new motion. It lets your mind to unwind. It doesn’t matter if you don’t know how to dance. You just have to relax and let your body to move. The most important thing in dancing is that, when you dance in a contest you try to show the best motion that you can do. When your basic wish is to win you do everything that you can. And when you win you fell like in heaven. I can’t describe this feeling, because you have to fell it if you want to understand. These unique emotions remain in your mind forever. I think that no one hobby can give such wonderful moments like dancing.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,08 kB)
Having a pet
Touching some other bases, I must say that there are many reasons of having a pet. The most important is loneliness. However I can’t deny that some people keep pets for fun. There are strong arguments both for and against keeping a pet. I would like begin with advantages of owning a pet. The first reason of having a pet is that their benefits for children are undeniable. Keeping a pet is an important part of every child’s childhood and plays a big role in both their physical and mental development. It teaches children how to play, look after them, while at the same time aiding tolerance and understanding of each other. From a social standpoint, pets play a large role in many lonely people’s lives. Nowadays more than ever lonely people are fond of keeping pets, because it helps to raise their mood, when they are in low spirits, and not to feel so extremely lonely. The final advantage of having a pet is that it makes fun for people who are crazy about attending various animals’ exhibitions and showing the best points of their pets to others. However, there are many disadvantages of keeping a pet as well. Perhaps the most obvious one is that pets cause a lot of damage. In fact, a lot of people face with this problem. To avoid that they always have to look after their pet and try not to keep them in rooms which are full of valuable things. Secondly, some people can’t keep pets because of their health. Usually they are allergies and can not live with a pet in the same place. Furthermore, some pets, especially dogs, dislike little children and they are likely to bite them. So it is advisable to think twice before buying a pet and consider both advantages and disadvantages. Talking about pets, I am able to say that I have a pet too. I have big, fat cat. He is called Meilas. He is Persian race. All my family’s life changed when we got this cat. This cat brought to our lives more fun. I feel very happy when Meilas meets me coming back from school. He is my best friend. To sum it up, I must say that if you love your pet, he makes you life as fun as you can imagine.
I would like to do the course in August because I have holidays then. I give preference to August because it is summer too. I think there would be more students from all over the world and that is a good way to improve my English. In the morning, I would like to join a grammar and vocabulary class because it is the best time to study more seriously. However, in the afternoon, I would like to do a scuba diving course because I have never tried it. The second choice would be a radio programme making because it sounds quite interesting and unusual. I would like to know about the weather in Australia and clothes, which are more suitable to be worn there. I have never been so far therefore I will need to buy some things unnecessary in our country.
Food and Drink
Regulations for checking and preventing fires were developed. In the reindustrialize era most cities had watchmen who sounded an alarm at signs of fire. Fire fighting tool was simple water. Another important fire-fighting tool was the axe, used to remove the fuel and prevent the spread of fire as well as to make openings that would allow heat and smoke to escape a burning building. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, fire brigades were formed by insurance companies. The government was not involved until 1865, when these brigades became London's Metropolitan Fire Brigade. The first modern standards for the operation of a fire department were not established until 1830, in Edinburgh, Scotland. These standards set out, for the first time, what was expected of a good fire department. In all industrial countries fire fighters undergo training, beginning with probationary fire fighters' school and continuing throughout a fire fighter's career. Great Britain has several fire training centers. In Russia, fire schools are in Moscow and St Petersburg; Sweden and Denmark have similar schools. Most fire fighting consists of applying water to the burning material to cool it. Fires involving flammable liquids, certain chemicals, and combustible metals often require special extinguishing agents and techniques. With some fuels the use of water may actually be dangerous. Now fire fighters use special technique. Their uniform is made from special material that protects from heat and poisonous gas they have masks and if there is people in the burning house they have oxygen masks for them. This work is very important because fire can make a lot of damage.